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Fifteenth Amendment To The United States Constitution
The Fifteenth Amendment (Amendment XV) to the United States Constitution prohibits the federal government and each state from denying or abridging a citizen's right to vote "on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude." It was ratified on February 3, 1870, as the third and last of the Reconstruction Amendments. In the final years of the American Civil War and the Reconstruction Era that followed, Congress repeatedly debated the rights of the millions of black freedmen. By 1869, amendments had been passed to abolish slavery and provide citizenship and equal protection under the laws, but the election of Ulysses S. Grant to the presidency in 1868 convinced a majority of Republicans that protecting the franchise of black male voters was important for the party's future. On February 26, 1869, after rejecting more sweeping versions of a suffrage amendment, Republicans proposed a compromise amendment which would ban franchise restrictions on the basis of race, color ...
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United States Constitution
The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the United States of America. It superseded the Articles of Confederation, the nation's first constitution, in 1789. Originally comprising seven articles, it delineates the national frame of government. Its first three articles embody the doctrine of the separation of powers, whereby the federal government is divided into three branches: the legislative, consisting of the bicameral Congress ( Article I); the executive, consisting of the president and subordinate officers ( Article II); and the judicial, consisting of the Supreme Court and other federal courts ( Article III). Article IV, Article V, and Article VI embody concepts of federalism, describing the rights and responsibilities of state governments, the states in relationship to the federal government, and the shared process of constitutional amendment. Article VII establishes the procedure subsequently used by the 13 states to ratify it. It is ...
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Literacy Test
A literacy test assesses a person's literacy skills: their ability to read and write have been administered by various governments, particularly to immigrants. In the United States, between the 1850s and 1960s, literacy tests were administered to prospective voters, and this had the effect of disenfranchising African Americans and others with diminished access to education. Other countries, notably Australia, as part of its White Australia policy, and South Africa adopted literacy tests either to exclude certain racialized groups from voting or to prevent them from immigrating. Voting From the 1890s to the 1960s, many state governments in the Southern United States administered literacy tests to prospective voters, purportedly to test their literacy in order to vote. The first state to establish literacy tests in the United States was Connecticut. In practice, these tests were intended to disenfranchise racial minorities and others deemed problematic by the ruling party. Sout ...
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Emancipation Proclamation
The Emancipation Proclamation, officially Proclamation 95, was a presidential proclamation and executive order issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863, during the American Civil War, Civil War. The Proclamation changed the legal status of more than 3.5 million Slavery in the United States, enslaved African Americans in the secessionist Confederate States of America, Confederate states from enslaved to free. As soon as slaves escaped the control of their enslavers, either by fleeing to Union (American Civil War), Union lines or through the advance of federal troops, they were permanently free. In addition, the Proclamation allowed for former slaves to "be received into the armed service of the United States." On September 22, 1862, Lincoln issued the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation. Its third paragraph reads: That on the first day of January, in the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as slaves ...
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15th Amendment Pg1of1 AC
15 (fifteen) is the natural number following 14 and preceding 16. Mathematics 15 is: * A composite number, and the sixth semiprime; its proper divisors being , and . * A deficient number, a smooth number, a lucky number, a pernicious number, a bell number (i.e., the number of partitions for a set of size 4), a pentatope number, and a repdigit in binary (1111) and quaternary (33). In hexadecimal, and higher bases, it is represented as F. * A triangular number, a hexagonal number, and a centered tetrahedral number. * The number of partitions of 7. * The smallest number that can be factorized using Shor's quantum algorithm. * The magic constant of the unique order-3 normal magic square. * The number of supersingular primes. Furthermore, * 15 is one of two numbers within the ''teen'' numerical range (13-19) not to use a single-digit number in the prefix of its name (the first syllable preceding the ''teen'' suffix); instead, it uses the adjective form of five ...
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Harper V
Harper may refer to: Names * Harper (name), a surname and given name Places ;in Canada *Harper Islands, Nunavut *Harper, Prince Edward Island ;In the United States *Harper, former name of Costa Mesa, California in Orange County *Harper, Illinois *Harper, Indiana *Harper, Iowa *Harper, Kansas *Harper, Kentucky * Harper, Missouri * Harper, Logan County, Ohio *Harper, Ross County, Ohio * Harper, Oregon *Harper, Texas * Harper, Utah *Harper, Washington * Harper, Wyoming ;Elsewhere * Harper, Liberia * Harper River in Canterbury, New Zealand *Harper Adams University, Shropshire, United Kingdom. Court cases * ''Harper'' ''v''. ''Virginia Board of Elections'', 383 U.S. 663 (1966), overruling ''Breedlove'' ''v''. ''Suttles'', 302 U.S. 277 (1937) Other uses * Harper, a harp player * ''Harper'' (film), a 1966 film starring Paul Newman and Lauren Bacall * Harper (publisher), an American publishing house, the imprint of global publisher HarperCollins * Harper College, a community col ...
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Fourteenth Amendment To The United States Constitution
The Fourteenth Amendment (Amendment XIV) to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments. Often considered as one of the most consequential amendments, it addresses citizenship rights and equal protection under the law and was proposed in response to issues related to former slaves following the American Civil War. The amendment was bitterly contested, particularly by the states of the defeated Confederacy, which were forced to ratify it in order to regain representation in Congress. The amendment, particularly its first section, is one of the most litigated parts of the Constitution, forming the basis for landmark Supreme Court decisions such as '' Brown v. Board of Education'' (1954) regarding racial segregation, ''Roe v. Wade'' (1973) regarding abortion ( overturned in 2022), '' Bush v. Gore'' (2000) regarding the 2000 presidential election, and '' Obergefell v. Hodges'' (2015) regarding same-sex marriage. The amendmen ...
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Voting Rights Act Of 1965
The Voting Rights Act of 1965 is a landmark piece of federal legislation in the United States that prohibits racial discrimination in voting. It was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson during the height of the civil rights movement on August 6, 1965, and Congress later amended the Act five times to expand its protections. Designed to enforce the voting rights guaranteed by the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution, the Act sought to secure the right to vote for racial minorities throughout the country, especially in the South. According to the U.S. Department of Justice, the Act is considered to be the most effective piece of federal civil rights legislation ever enacted in the country. It is also "one of the most far-reaching pieces of civil rights legislation in U.S. history." The act contains numerous provisions that regulate elections. The act's "general provisions" provide nationwide protections for voting rights. S ...
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Twenty-fourth Amendment To The United States Constitution
The Twenty-fourth Amendment (Amendment XXIV) of the United States Constitution prohibits both Congress and the states from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll tax or other types of tax. The amendment was proposed by Congress to the states on August 27, 1962, and was ratified by the states on January 23, 1964. Southern states of the former Confederate States of America adopted poll taxes in laws of the late 19th century and new constitutions from 1890 to 1908, after the Democratic Party had generally regained control of state legislatures decades after the end of Reconstruction, as a measure to prevent African Americans and often poor whites (and following passage of the Nineteenth Amendment, women) from voting. Use of the poll taxes by states was held to be constitutional by the Supreme Court of the United States in the 1937 decision '' Breedlove v. Suttles''. When the 24th Amendment was ratified in 1964, five states still retained a ...
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Texas Primary Cases
White primaries were primary elections held in the Southern United States in which only white voters were permitted to participate. Statewide white primaries were established by the state Democratic Party units or by state legislatures in South Carolina (1896),Walton, Hanes (Jr); Puckett, Sherman and Deskins Donald R. (Jr); ''The African American Electorate''; p. 347 Florida (1902), Mississippi and Alabama (also 1902), Texas (1905), Louisiana and Arkansas (1906), and Georgia (1900). Since winning the Democratic primary in the South almost always meant winning the general election, barring black and other minority voters meant they were in essence disenfranchised. Southern states also passed laws and constitutions with provisions to raise barriers to voter registration, completing disenfranchisement from 1890 to 1908 in all states of the former Confederacy. The Texas Legislature passed a law in 1923 that prevented Black voters from participating in any Democratic party primary ...
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Guinn V
Guinn is both a surname and a given name. Notable people with the name include: Surname: * Bill Guinn or Lew Meehan (1890–1951), American film actor * Colin Guinn, contestant in ''The Amazing Race'', a U.S. TV series * Dominick Guinn, (born 1975), American professional boxer * Ernest Allen Guinn (1905–1974), United States federal judge * Kenny Guinn (1936–2010), American businessman, educator and politician * Nora Guinn (1920–2005), American judge * Robert Henry Guinn (1822–1887), Texas politician * Skip Guinn (born 1944), former Major League Baseball pitcher * Thomas Guinn (1836–1908), Union Army soldier during the American Civil War Given name: * Guinn Smith (1920–2004), American athlete, 1948 Olympic champion in the pole vault * Guinn Williams (actor) (1899–1962), American actor who appeared in memorable westerns * Guinn Williams (Texas politician) (1871–1948), U.S. Representative from Texas See also * Guinn Run, Pennsylvania stream flowing southeastward in the ...
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Voter Suppression
Voter suppression is a strategy used to influence the outcome of an election by discouraging or preventing specific groups of people from voting. It is distinguished from political campaigning in that campaigning attempts to change likely voting behavior by changing the opinions of potential voters through persuasion and organization, activating otherwise inactive voters, or registering new supporters. Voter suppression, instead, attempts to gain an advantage by reducing the turnout of certain voters. Suppression is an anti-democratic tactic associated with authoritarianism. The tactics of voter suppression range from changes that make voting more confusing or time-intensive, to intimidating or harming prospective voters. Examples Australia Australian citizens are expected to enroll to vote, and it is their responsibility to update their enrollment when they change their address. Even so, an estimated 6% of eligible Australian voters are not enrolled or are enrolled incorre ...
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