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Fenceline Community
A fenceline community or frontline community is a neighborhood that is immediately adjacent to a company, military base, industrial or service center and is directly affected by the noise, odors, chemical emissions, traffic, parking, or operations of the company. These communities are exposed to hazardous chemicals, high pollution levels, and environmental degradation along with the threat of chemical explosions. Many fenceline communities are situated in sacrifice zones that are disproportionately inhabited by people of color, Indigenous communities, and the working poor. Background As a result of exposure to hazardous materials and emissions, fenceline communities experience higher rates and risk of cancer and respiratory challenges. Fenceline communities also face additional health and socioeconomic issues such as poor housing infrastructure, lack of access to nutritious and non-toxic food, and higher rates of diseases, along with the increase stress and challenges that resul ...
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Environmental Degradation
Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as quality of air, water and soil; the destruction of ecosystems; habitat destruction; the extinction of wildlife; and pollution. It is defined as any change or disturbance to the environment perceived to be deleterious or undesirable. Environmental concerns can be defined as the negative effects of any human activity on the environment. The biological as well as the physical features of the environment are included. Some of the primary environmental challenges that are causing great worry are air pollution, water pollution, natural environment pollution, rubbish pollution, and so o Environmental degradation is one of the ten threats officially cautioned by the High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change, high-level PaneI on Threats, Challenges and Change of the United Nations. The United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction defines environmental ...
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Environmental Racism
Environmental racism or ecological apartheid is a form of institutional racism leading to landfills, incinerators, and hazardous waste disposal being disproportionally placed in communities of colour. Internationally, it is also associated with extractivism, which places the environmental burdens of mining, oil extraction, and industrial agriculture upon Indigenous peoples and poorer nations largely inhabited by people of colour. Response to environmental racism has contributed to the environmental justice movement, which developed in the United States and abroad throughout the 1970s and 1980s. Environmental racism may disadvantage minority groups or numerical majorities, as in South Africa where apartheid had debilitating environmental impacts on Black people. Internationally trade in global waste disadvantages global majorities in poorer countries largely inhabited by people of colour. It also applies to the particular vulnerability of indigenous groups to environmental pollu ...
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Sacrifice Zone
A sacrifice zone or sacrifice area (often termed a national sacrifice zone or national sacrifice area) is a geographic area that has been permanently impaired by heavy environmental alterations or economic disinvestment, often through locally unwanted land use (LULU). These zones most commonly exist in low-income and minority communities. Commentators including Chris Hedges, Joe Sacco, and Steve Lerner have argued that corporate business practices contribute to producing sacrifice zones. A 2022 report by the UN highlighted that millions of people globally are in pollution sacrifice zones, particularly in zones used for heavy industry and mining. Definition A sacrifice zone or sacrifice area (also a national sacrifice zone or national sacrifice area) is a geographic area that has been permanently impaired by environmental damage or economic disinvestment. They are places damaged through locally unwanted land use (LULU) causing "chemical pollution where residents live immediately adj ...
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NIMBY
NIMBY (or nimby), an acronym for the phrase "not in my back yard", is a characterization of opposition by residents to proposed developments in their local area, as well as support for strict land use regulations. It carries the connotation that such residents are only opposing the development because it is close to them and that they would tolerate or support it if it were built farther away. The residents are often called nimbys, and their viewpoint is called nimbyism. The opposite, pro-housing movement is known as YIMBY for "yes in my back yard". Some examples of projects that have been opposed by nimbys include housing development, homeless shelters, incinerators, sewage treatment systems, fracking, and nuclear waste repositories. Rationales Developments likely to attract local objections include: * Infrastructure development, such as new roads and motorway service areas, light rail and metro lines, bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure, airports, power plants, re ...
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Low-emission Zone
A low-emission zone (LEZ) is a defined area where access by some polluting vehicles is restricted or deterred with the aim of improving air quality. This may favour vehicles such as bicycles, micromobility vehicles, (certain) alternative fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrids, and zero-emission vehicles such as all-electric vehicles. A zero-emission zone (ZEZ) is a LEZ where only zero-emissions vehicles (ZEVs) are allowed. In such areas, all internal combustion engine vehicles are banned; this includes any plug-in hybrid vehicles which cannot run zero-emission. Only battery electric vehicles and hydrogen vehicles are allowed in a ZEZ, along with walking and cycling and fully electric public transport vehicles, e.g. trams, electric buses etc. Workings In many LEZs, vehicles that do not meet the emission standards set by the LEZ are not barred from entry into the LEZ (i.e. using automated boom barriers), but rather simply fined if they enter the zone. A fine is ...
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Locally Unwanted Land Use
In land-use planning, a locally unwanted land use (LULU) is a land use that creates externality costs on those living in close proximity. These costs include potential health hazards, poor aesthetics, or reduction in home values. LULUs often gravitate to disadvantaged areas such as slums, industrial neighborhoods and poor, minority, unincorporated or politically under-represented places that cannot fight them off. Such facilities with such hazards need to be created for the greater benefits that they offer society. LULUs can include power plants, landfill, dumps (landfills), prisons, roads, factory, factories, hospitals and many other developments. Planning seeks to distribute and reduce the harm of LULUs by zoning, environmental laws, community participation, buffer areas, clustering, dispersing and other such devices. Thus planning tries to protect property and environmental values by finding sites and operating procedures that minimize the LULU's effects. Types * Brothel * ...
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Line Source
A line source, as opposed to a point source, area source, or volume source, is a source of air, noise, water contamination or electromagnetic radiation that emanates from a linear (one-dimensional) geometry. The most prominent linear sources are roadway air pollution, aircraft air emissions, roadway noise, certain types of water pollution sources that emanate over a range of river extent rather than from a discrete point, elongated light tubes, certain dose models in medical physics and electromagnetic antennas. While point sources of pollution were studied since the late nineteenth century, linear sources did not receive much attention from scientists until the late 1960s, when environmental regulations for highways and airports began to emerge. At the same time, computers with the processing power to accommodate the data processing needs of the computer models required to tackle these one-dimensional sources became more available. In addition, this era of the 1960s saw th ...
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Environmental Racism In The United States
Environmental racism is a form of institutional racism, in which people of colour experience environmental harms, such as pollution and the effects of natural disasters, at a disproportionately high rate. Some scholars have coined environmental racism as the "New Jim Crow". Like Jim Crow laws, environmental racism systematically disenfranchises black people. It causes devastating impacts on the physical and mental health of African Americans, and creates disparities in many different spheres of life, such as transportation, housing, infrastructure, health, and economic opportunity. Epidemiologists Joel Kaufman and Anjum Hajat argue that, "discriminatory policies and practices that constitute environmental racism have disproportionately burdened communities of color, specifically African-Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, and Hispanic populations." Communities of color are more likely to be located next to pollution sources, such as landfills, ...
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Environmental Justice
Environmental justice is a social movement to address the unfair exposure of poor and marginalized communities to harms from hazardous waste, resource extraction, and other land uses.Schlosberg, David. (2007) ''Defining Environmental Justice: Theories, Movements, and Nature''. Oxford University Press. The movement has generated hundreds of studies showing that exposure to environmental harms is inequitably distributed. The global environmental justice movement arises from place-based environmental conflicts in which local environmental defenders frequently confront multi-national corporations in resource extraction or other industries. Local outcomes of these conflicts are increasingly influenced by trans-national environmental justice networks. The movement began in the United States in the 1980s and was heavily influenced by the American civil rights movement. The original conception of environmental justice in the 1980s focused on harms to marginalised racial groups ...
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Sacrifice Zone
A sacrifice zone or sacrifice area (often termed a national sacrifice zone or national sacrifice area) is a geographic area that has been permanently impaired by heavy environmental alterations or economic disinvestment, often through locally unwanted land use (LULU). These zones most commonly exist in low-income and minority communities. Commentators including Chris Hedges, Joe Sacco, and Steve Lerner have argued that corporate business practices contribute to producing sacrifice zones. A 2022 report by the UN highlighted that millions of people globally are in pollution sacrifice zones, particularly in zones used for heavy industry and mining. Definition A sacrifice zone or sacrifice area (also a national sacrifice zone or national sacrifice area) is a geographic area that has been permanently impaired by environmental damage or economic disinvestment. They are places damaged through locally unwanted land use (LULU) causing "chemical pollution where residents live immediately adj ...
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Environmental Dumping
Environmental dumping is the practice of transfrontier shipment of waste (household waste, industrial/nuclear waste, etc.) from one country to another. The goal is to take the waste to a country that has less strict environmental laws, or environmental laws that are not strictly enforced. The economic benefit of this practice is cheap disposal or recycling of waste without the economic regulations of the original country. An example of an attempt at environmental dumping is the story of the decommissioned French aircraft carrier, the FS Clemenceau, which was originally sold to a ship breaking yard in Gujarat India to be demolished and recycled as scrap. The Indian Supreme Court ruled in 2006 that it could not enter Indian waters due to the high level of toxic waste and 700 tons of asbestos present on the ship, forcing the French government to take the Clemenceau back. The ship was subsequently blocked from entering the Suez Canal for the same reason. In 2009, the task of recycl ...
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Cancer Alley
Cancer Alley (french: Allée du Cancer) is the regional nickname given to an stretch of land along the Mississippi River between Baton Rouge and New Orleans, in the River Parishes of Louisiana, which contains over 150 petrochemical plants and refineries. This area accounts for 25% of the petrochemical production in the United States. The region is considered a sacrifice zone. In Cancer Alley, forty-six individuals per one million are at risk of developing cancer, compared with the national average of roughly thirty individuals per one million. The abnormally high cancer risk and concentration of petrochemical operations inspired the "Cancer Alley" moniker. Additionally, researchers have found that racial disparity in cancer risk from air pollution worsen as minority concentration increases across the region. Individuals in black-dominant areas are 16% more at risk than those in white-dominant areas, and people in low-income tracts also bear a cumulative risk 12% more than ...
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