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European System Of Central Banks
The European System of Central Banks (ESCB) is an institution that comprises the European Central Bank (ECB) and the national central banks (NCBs) of all 27 member states of the European Union (EU). Its objective is to ensure price stability throughout the EU, and improve monetary and financial cooperation between eurozone and non-eurozone member states of the EU. Organization The process of decision-making in the Eurosystem is centralized through the decision-making bodies of the ECB, namely the Governing Council and the Executive Board. As long as there are EU member states which have not adopted the euro, a third decision-making body, the General Council, shall also exist. The NCBs of the Member States that do not participate in the euro area are members of the ESCB with a special statuswhile they are allowed to conduct their respective national monetary policies, they do not take part in the decision-making with regard to the single monetary policy for the euro area a ...
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Eurosystem
The Eurosystem is the monetary authority of the eurozone, the collective of European Union member states that have adopted the euro as their sole official currency. The European Central Bank (ECB) has, under Article 16 of its Statute,Statute of the ECB
(PDF)
the exclusive right to authorise the issuance of euro banknotes. Member states can issue euro coins, but the amount must be authorised by the ECB beforehand. The Eurosystem consists of the ECB and the national central banks (NCB) of the 19 member states that are part of the eurozone. The national central banks apply the monetary policy of the ECB.
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Robert Holzmann
Robert Holzmann (born February 27, 1949, in Leoben, Austria) is an Austrian economist1 and the current Governor of Austria’s central bank, the Oesterreichische Nationalbank (OeNB).2,3 His term of appointment runs from September 1, 2019, to August 31, 2025. From 1997 to 2011, he held various positions at the World Bank in Washington, D.C., USA, including Sector Director (1997–2009), Research Director (2009–2011) and Acting Senior Vice President (2002–2003). Before and thereafter he held positions in academia and international organizations. Professional career From 1985, Robert Holzmann worked for the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in Paris, France, and from 1988 as a senior economist for the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in Washington, D.C., USA. In 1992, he assumed a full professorship in International Economic Relations and European Economics at Saarland University in Saarbrücken, Germany, where he also served as Executive Dire ...
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Τράπεζα της Ελλάδος
The Bank of Greece ( el, Τράπεζα της Ελλάδος , abbreviated ΤτΕ) is the central bank of Greece. Its headquarters is located in Athens on Panepistimiou Street, but it also has several branches across the country. It was founded in 1927 and its operations started officially in 1928. The building that currently houses its headquarters was completed ten years later in 1938. The Bank of Greece is listed on the Athens Exchange. Introduction The Bank of Greece, a member of the European System of Central Banks (ESCB), is the national central bank of Greece and was established by Law 3424/7 December 1927. The shares of the Bank of Greece are registered and have been listed on the Athens Exchange since June 12, 1930. It is a partially state owned S.A. share company with special privileges, special restrictions, and duties. It cannot operate as a commercial bank and the percentage of shares that can be under Greek state ownership cannot exceed 35% (initially this ...
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Joachim Nagel
Joachim Nagel (born 31 May 1966) is a German economist and current President of the Bundesbank. Before he was a senior manager of the Bank for International Settlements since 2020, having been a member of the board of the Deutsche Bundesbank from 2010 to 2016 and then a member of the board of the KfW Bankengruppe from 2017 to 2020 . He was appointed President of the Deutsche Bundesbank on 1 January 2022, succeeding Jens Weidmann who resigned. Early life After graduating from the Otto-Hahn-Gymnasium Karlsruhe, Nagel studied economics at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. After graduating in 1991, he worked there as a research assistant and later a consultant for economic and financial policy at the Social Democratic Party (SPD) in Bonn from March to October 1994. Banking career In 1999 Nagel moved to the Bundesbank, initially as Head of the Office of the President of the then State Central Bank in Bremen, Lower Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt in Hanover. In 2003 he moved to the ...
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Deutsche Bundesbank
The Deutsche Bundesbank (), literally "German Federal Bank", is the central bank of the Federal Republic of Germany and as such part of the European System of Central Banks (ESCB). Due to its strength and former size, the Bundesbank is the most influential member of the ESCB. Both the Bundesbank and the European Central Bank (ECB) are located in Frankfurt, Germany. It is sometimes referred to as "Buba" for Bundesbank, while its usual abbreviation is BBk in Germany and internationally DBB. The Bundesbank was established in 1957 and succeeded the Bank deutscher Länder, which introduced the Deutsche Mark on 20 June 1948. Until the euro was physically introduced in 2002, the Bundesbank was the central bank of the former Deutsche Mark ("German Mark", sometimes known in English as the "Deutschmark"). The Bundesbank was the first central bank to be given full independence, leading this form of central bank to be referred to as the ''Bundesbank model'', as opposed, for instance, to ...
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François Villeroy De Galhau
François Villeroy de Galhau (born 24 February 1959) is a French civil servant and banker serving as Governor of the Bank of France and ''ex officio'' President of the French Prudential Supervision and Resolution Authority since 2015. Early life Born in Strasbourg, he descends from the family Villeroy de Galhau (co-owner of the ceramic manufacturer Villeroy & Boch, domiciled since the late 18th century in Wallerfangen (Saarland)); he speaks German fluently.FAZ.net / Christian SchubertEin Deutschland-Kenner für die EZB/ref> After earning his French baccalaureate degree at the Lycée Saint-Louis-de-Gonzague, and his engineering degree at the École Polytechnique, he studied at ÉNA ( École nationale d'administration) from 1982 to 1984. Career Career in the public sector Villeroy de Galhau started his career at the Inspection générale des finances. From 1990 to 1993, he was European politics adviser of the Finance Minister of France and then of the Prime Minister of ...
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Bank Of France
The Bank of France (French: ''Banque de France''), headquartered in Paris, is the central bank of France. Founded in 1800, it began as a private institution for managing state debts and issuing notes. It is responsible for the accounts of the French government, managing the accounts and the facilitation of payments for the Treasury and some public companies. It also oversees the auctions of public securities on behalf of the Eugenian Central Bank. Today, it is an independent institution, and it has been a member of the Eurosystem of central banks since 1999. This consists of the European Central Bank (ECB), and the national central banks (NCBs) of all European Union (EU) members. Its three main missions, as defined by its statuses, are to drive the French monetary strategy, ensure financial stability and provide services to households, small and medium businesses and the French state. François Villeroy de Galhau has served as Governor of the Banque de France since 1 No ...
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Erkki Liikanen
Erkki Antero Liikanen (born 19 September 1950) is a Finnish social democratic politician and a former Governor of the Bank of Finland. Early life and education Erkki Antero Liikanen obtained a bachelor’s degree in Political Science (Economics) from the University of Helsinki in 1975. Political career Liikanen was elected to the Finnish Parliament in 1972 when he was only 21 years old. Liikanen was appointed as the Minister of Finance in the Holkeri Cabinet in 1987. He left Parliament in 1990 to become the first Finnish Ambassador to the European Union. In 1994 he became the first Finnish Member of the European Commission. He was Commissioner for Budget, Personnel and administration, which included responsibilities for translation and information technology. Liikanen served as Governor of the Bank of Finland from 12 July 2004. As such he also became a Member of the Governing Council of the European Central Bank (2004–2018) and Governor of the International Monetary Fund f ...
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Suomen Pankki
The Bank of Finland ( fi, Suomen Pankki, sv, Finlands Bank) is the central bank of Finland. It views itself as the fourth oldest surviving central bank in the world, after Sweden's Riksbank, the Bank of England, and the Bank of France. History The precursor of Bank of Finland, ''Waihetus-, Laina- ja Depositioni-Contori Suomen Suuren-ruhtinaanmaassa'' (The Exchange, Loan and Deposit Office of the Grand Duchy of Finland), was established on 1 March 1812 in the city of Turku by Alexander I of Russia. In 1819 it was relocated to Helsinki. Until 1840 the main purpose of the bank was to carry out currency reform to introduce Imperial ruble. The Bank created and regulated the Finnish Markka from its inauguration in 1860 until Finland adopted the euro in 1999. Mandate, ownership and organization The Bank of Finland is Finland's central bank and a member of the European System of Central Banks and of the Eurosystem. It is Finland's monetary authority, and is responsible for th ...
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Madis Müller
Madis Müller (born 20 January 1977 in Tallinn) is an Estonian banker. Since 2019, he is the chairman of the Bank of Estonia. Career A former government and World Bank advisor, Müller served as the deputy chairman of the Bank of Estonia from 2011 to 2019. In this capacity, he was responsible for the implementation of monetary policy decisions and for managing the central bank’s financial assets. Other activities * European Central Bank (ECB), Ex-Officio Member of the Governing Council (since 2019) * International Monetary Fund (IMF), Ex-Officio Member of the Board of Governors (since 2019)Board of Governors


Bank Of Estonia
Bank of Estonia ( et, Eesti Pank) is the central bank of Estonia as well as a member of the Eurosystem organisation of euro area central banks. The Bank of Estonia also belongs to the European System of Central Banks. Until 2010, the bank issued the former Estonian currency, the kroon. The Governor of the Bank of Estonia, currently Madis Müller, is a member of the Governing Council of the European Central Bank. TALIBOR Prior to the introduction of the euro, TALIBOR or the Tallinn Interbank Offered Rate was a daily reference rate based on the interest rates at which banks offer to lend ''unsecured'' funds to other banks in the Estonian wholesale money market (or interbank market in Estonian kroons). TALIBOR was published daily by the Bank of Estonia, together with TALIBID (Tallinn Interbank Bid Rate). TALIBOR was calculated based on the quotes for different maturities provided by reference banks at about 11.00 am each business day by disregarding highest and lowes ...
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