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Euroclear
Euroclear is a Belgium-based financial services company that specializes in the settlement of securities transactions, as well as the safekeeping and asset servicing of these securities. It was founded in 1968 as part of J.P. Morgan & Co. to settle trades on the then developing eurobond market. It is one of two European international central securities depositories (Clearstream being the other). Activity Euroclear settles domestic and international securities transactions, covering bonds, equities, derivatives, and investment funds. Euroclear provides securities services to financial institutions located in more than 90 countries. In addition to its role as an international central securities depository (ICSD), Euroclear also acts as the central securities depository (CSD) for Belgian, Dutch, Finnish, French, Irish, Swedish, and UK securities. Euroclear also owns EMXCo, the UK's leading provider of investment-fund order routing. Retail investors are able to have direct ac ...
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Euroclear W Kraków Bonarka For Business 2017
Euroclear is a Belgium-based financial services company that specializes in the settlement of securities transactions, as well as the safekeeping and asset servicing of these securities. It was founded in 1968 as part of J.P. Morgan & Co. to settle trades on the then developing eurobond market. It is one of two European international central securities depositories (Clearstream being the other). Activity Euroclear settles domestic and international securities transactions, covering bonds, equities, derivatives, and investment funds. Euroclear provides securities services to financial institutions located in more than 90 countries. In addition to its role as an international central securities depository (ICSD), Euroclear also acts as the central securities depository (CSD) for Belgian, Dutch, Finnish, French, Irish, Swedish, and UK securities. Euroclear also owns EMXCo, the UK's leading provider of investment-fund order routing. Retail investors are able to have direct ac ...
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National Settlement Depository (Russia)
The National Settlement Depository (NSD), headquartered in Moscow, is a Russian non-bank financial institution and central securities depository (CSD). It provides depository, settlement (bank account), and related services to financial market entities. Its services cover both securities listed in Russia's 2011 Federal Law "On the Central Securities Depository", and other Russian and foreign equity and debt securities. NSD is the CSD of the Russian Federation, and was assigned CSD status by the Russian Federal Financial Markets Service in 2012. It is the largest securities depository in Russia by market value of equity and debt securities held in custody, which in June 2022 were 70 trillion roubles ($1.12 trillion). It is a member of the Moscow Exchange Group. In March 2022, in the wake of the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, NSD's accounts were blocked and frozen at international CSDs Euroclear and Clearstream (CSDs which together held €50tn of assets on behalf of investors). ...
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National Settlement Depository
The National Settlement Depository (NSD), headquartered in Moscow, is a Russian non-bank financial institution and central securities depository (CSD). It provides depository, settlement (bank account), and related services to financial market entities. Its services cover both securities listed in Russia's 2011 Federal Law "On the Central Securities Depository", and other Russian and foreign equity and debt securities. NSD is the CSD of the Russian Federation, and was assigned CSD status by the Russian Federal Financial Markets Service in 2012. It is the largest securities depository in Russia by market value of equity and debt securities held in custody, which in June 2022 were 70 trillion roubles ($1.12 trillion). It is a member of the Moscow Exchange Group. In March 2022, in the wake of the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, NSD's accounts were blocked and frozen at international CSDs Euroclear and Clearstream (CSDs which together held €50tn of assets on behalf of investors). ...
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CREST (securities Depository)
CREST is a UK-based central securities depository that holds UK equities and UK gilts, as well as Irish equities and other international securities. It was named after its securities settlement system, CREST, and has been owned and operated by Euroclear since 2002. The name CREST stands for Certificateless Registry for Electronic Share Transfer. CREST allows shareholders and bondholders to hold assets in a dematerialised, i.e. electronic form, rather than holding physical share certificates. CREST also serves a number of other important functions, such as assisting in the payments of dividends to shareholders. It is also an "electronic trade confirmation system" ("ETC") (using Trax). When parties to a transaction make a deal, they both electronically confirm their sides of the transaction via electronic transfer. Both parties are required to submit confirmation details to Crest. In the event that transaction details do not match, CREST will highlight the issues and ensure that t ...
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Clearstream
Clearstream is a financial services company that specializes in the settlement of securities transactions and is owned by Deutsche Börse AG. It provides settlement and custody as well as other related services for securities across all asset classes. It is one of two European International central securities depositories (Euroclear being the other). Clearstream operates securities settlement systems based in both Luxembourg and Germany, which allow for the holding and transfer of securities. Clearstream operates its International Central Securities Depository (ICSD) from Luxembourg. It is also a joint partner in the Luxembourgish Central Securities Depository (CSD), LuxCSD, together with the Central Bank of Luxembourg. In Germany, Clearstream operates the German CSD, Clearstream Banking AG. Clearstream has links to over 50 domestic markets worldwide, and also issues and safekeeps Eurobonds. In 2014, the value of assets under custody on behalf of customers averaged 12.2 tri ...
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Securities
A security is a tradable financial asset. The term commonly refers to any form of financial instrument, but its legal definition varies by jurisdiction. In some countries and languages people commonly use the term "security" to refer to any form of financial instrument, even though the underlying legal and regulatory regime may not have such a broad definition. In some jurisdictions the term specifically excludes financial instruments other than equities and Fixed income instruments. In some jurisdictions it includes some instruments that are close to equities and fixed income, e.g., equity warrants. Securities may be represented by a certificate or, more typically, they may be "non-certificated", that is in electronic ( dematerialized) or "book entry only" form. Certificates may be ''bearer'', meaning they entitle the holder to rights under the security merely by holding the security, or ''registered'', meaning they entitle the holder to rights only if they appear on a secur ...
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Central Securities Depository
A central securities depository (CSD) is a specialized financial organization holding securities like shares, either in certificated or uncertificated ( dematerialized) form, allowing ownership to be easily transferred through a book entry rather than by a transfer of physical certificates. This allows brokers and financial companies to hold their securities at one location where they can be available for clearing and settlement. This is usually done electronically, making it much faster and easier than was traditionally the case where physical certificates had to be exchanged after a trade had been completed. In some cases these organizations also carry out centralized comparison, and transaction processing such as clearing and settlement of securities transfers, securities pledges, and securities freezes. Scope A CSD can be national or international in nature, and may be for a specific type of security, such as government bonds. Domestic central securities depository Many ...
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Central Securities Depository
A central securities depository (CSD) is a specialized financial organization holding securities like shares, either in certificated or uncertificated ( dematerialized) form, allowing ownership to be easily transferred through a book entry rather than by a transfer of physical certificates. This allows brokers and financial companies to hold their securities at one location where they can be available for clearing and settlement. This is usually done electronically, making it much faster and easier than was traditionally the case where physical certificates had to be exchanged after a trade had been completed. In some cases these organizations also carry out centralized comparison, and transaction processing such as clearing and settlement of securities transfers, securities pledges, and securities freezes. Scope A CSD can be national or international in nature, and may be for a specific type of security, such as government bonds. Domestic central securities depository Many ...
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Eurobond (international)
A eurobond is an international bond that is denominated in a currency not native to the country where it is issued. They are also called external bonds. They are usually categorised according to the currency in which they are issued: eurodollar, euroyen, and so on. The name became somewhat misleading with the advent of the euro currency in 1999; eurobonds were created in the 1960s, before the euro existed, and thus the etymology is to "European bonds" rather than "bonds denominated in the Euro currency". The eurobond market was traditionally centered in the City of London, with Luxembourg also being a primary listing center for these instruments. Eurobonds have since expanded and are traded throughout the world, with Singapore and Tokyo being notable markets as well. These bonds were originally created to escape regulation: by trading in US dollars in London, certain financial requirements of the US government unpopular with bankers could be evaded, and London was happy to ...
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Securities Lending
In finance, securities lending or stock lending refers to the lending of securities by one party to another. The terms of the loan will be governed by a "Securities Lending Agreement", which requires that the borrower provides the lender with collateral, in the form of cash or non-cash securities, of value equal to or greater than the loaned securities plus an agreed-upon margin. ''Non-cash'' refers to the subset of collateral that is not pure cash, including equities, government bonds, convertible bonds, corporate bonds, and other financial products. The agreement is a contract enforceable under relevant law, which is often specified in the agreement. As payment for the loan, the parties negotiate a fee, quoted as an annualized percentage of the value of the loaned securities. If the agreed form of collateral is cash, then the fee may be quoted as a " short rebate", meaning that the lender will earn all the interest that accrues on the cash collateral and will "rebate" an agre ...
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Sicovam
Sicovam, an acronym for ''Société Interprofessionnelle pour la Compensation des Valeurs Mobilières'', is both a security identifier system used to identify French securities listed on French stock exchanges, as well as the company set up to assign them. Sicovam was merged into the European-wide Euroclear and as of July 1, 2003 SICOVAMs are no longer issued, ISINs being used instead. Description Sicovams consist of a six-digit identifier, assigned by the Sicovam group "by hand" in order of issue. For instance, Alcatel was assigned 013000. Sicovams could be directly converted to ISINs as with other older systems, including CUSIP and SEDOL. To do so the number was padded out with three zeros on the front, then the country code "FR" was added to the front and the ISIN check digit A check digit is a form of redundancy check used for error detection on identification numbers, such as bank account numbers, which are used in an application where they will at least sometimes be inpu ...
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Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation
The Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation (DTCC) is an American post-trade financial services company providing clearing and settlement services to the financial markets. It performs the exchange of securities on behalf of buyers and sellers and functions as a central securities depository by providing central custody of securities. DTCC was established in 1999 as a holding company to combine The Depository Trust Company (DTC) and National Securities Clearing Corporation (NSCC). User-owned and directed, it automates, centralizes, standardizes, and streamlines processes in the capital markets. Through its subsidiaries, DTCC provides clearance, settlement, and information services for equities, corporate and municipal bonds, unit investment trusts, government and mortgage-backed securities, money market instruments, and over-the-counter derivatives. It also manages transactions between mutual funds and insurance carriers and their respective investors. In 2011, DTCC set ...
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