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Dignitatis Humanae
''Dignitatis humanae'' (''Of the Dignity of the Human Person'') is the Second Vatican Council's Declaration on Religious Freedom. In the context of the council's stated intention "to develop the doctrine of recent popes on the inviolable rights of the human person and the constitutional order of society", ''Dignitatis humanae'' spells out the church's support for the protection of religious liberty. It set the ground rules by which the church would relate to secular states. The passage of this measure by a vote of 2,308 to 70 is considered by many to be one of the most significant events of the council. This declaration was promulgated by Pope Paul VI on December 7, 1965. ''Dignitatis humanae'' became one of the key points of dispute between the Vatican and Traditionalist Catholicism, traditionalist Catholic such as Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre who argued that the council document was incompatible with previous authoritatively stated Catholic teaching. Background Earlier Cathol ...
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Incipit
The incipit () of a text is the first few words of the text, employed as an identifying label. In a musical composition, an incipit is an initial sequence of notes, having the same purpose. The word ''incipit'' comes from Latin and means "it begins". Its counterpart taken from the ending of the text is the explicit. Before the development of titles, texts were often referred to by their incipits, as with for example ''Agnus Dei''. During the medieval period in Europe, incipits were often written in a different script or colour from the rest of the work of which they were a part, and "incipit pages" might be heavily decorated with illumination. Though the word ''incipit'' is Latin, the practice of the incipit predates classical antiquity by several millennia and can be found in various parts of the world. Although not always called by the name of ''incipit'' today, the practice of referring to texts by their initial words remains commonplace. Historical examples Sumerian In ...
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Syllabus Of Errors
The ''Syllabus of Errors'' ( la, Syllabus Errorum) is a document issued by the Holy See under Pope Pius IX on 8 December 1864, as an appendix to the encyclical. It condemns a total of 80 errors or heresies, articulating Catholic Church teaching on a number of philosophical and political questions. Reaction from Catholics was mixed, while that from Protestants was uniformly negative. The document remains controversial, and it has been cited on numerous occasions by both Catholic traditionalists seeking to uphold traditional Catholic values and anti-Catholics seeking to criticize the Church's positions. The purpose of the ''Syllabus'' was not to explain in depth, but only to summarize each error briefly and to refer to the corresponding papal documents which define and explicate in detail. These detailed documents are essential for understanding the pope's view. History On 8 December 1864, the Feast of the Immaculate Conception, the Holy See under Pope Pius IX issued the '' ...
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Documents Of The Catholic Social Teaching Tradition
A document is a written, drawn, presented, or memorialized representation of thought, often the manifestation of non-fictional, as well as fictional, content. The word originates from the Latin ''Documentum'', which denotes a "teaching" or "lesson": the verb ''doceō'' denotes "to teach". In the past, the word was usually used to denote written proof useful as evidence of a truth or fact. In the computer age, "document" usually denotes a primarily textual computer file, including its structure and format, e.g. fonts, colors, and images. Contemporarily, "document" is not defined by its transmission medium, e.g., paper, given the existence of electronic documents. "Documentation" is distinct because it has more denotations than "document". Documents are also distinguished from " realia", which are three-dimensional objects that would otherwise satisfy the definition of "document" because they memorialize or represent thought; documents are considered more as 2-dimensional re ...
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Documents Of The Second Vatican Council
A document is a written, drawn, presented, or memorialized representation of thought, often the manifestation of non-fictional, as well as fictional, content. The word originates from the Latin ''Documentum'', which denotes a "teaching" or "lesson": the verb ''doceō'' denotes "to teach". In the past, the word was usually used to denote written proof useful as evidence of a truth or fact. In the computer age, "document" usually denotes a primarily textual computer file, including its structure and format, e.g. fonts, colors, and images. Contemporarily, "document" is not defined by its transmission medium, e.g., paper, given the existence of electronic documents. "Documentation" is distinct because it has more denotations than "document". Documents are also distinguished from " realia", which are three-dimensional objects that would otherwise satisfy the definition of "document" because they memorialize or represent thought; documents are considered more as 2-dimensional r ...
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Mirari Vos
(Latin: "To wonder at you"; subtitled "On Liberalism and Religious Indifferentism"), sometimes referred to as , is the first encyclical of Pope Gregory XVI and was issued in August 1832. Addressed "To All Patriarchs, Primates, Archbishops, and Bishops of the Catholic World", it is general in scope. Background Felicité Robert de Lamennais, Charles Forbes René de Montalembert and Jean-Baptiste Henri Lacordaire started a newspaper, ("The Future"). While the paper was a strong proponent of Ultramontanism, supporting the authority of the papacy in opposition to nationalist and secularist ideas, it also advocated an enlarged suffrage, separation of church and state, and universal freedom of conscience, instruction, assembly, and the press. They saw no conflict between Catholicism and liberal reform. The conservative French hierarchy regarded such views as dangerous nonsense, many considering an established church, a Catholic near-monopoly in education, and an anointed monarch a ...
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Quanta Cura
(Latin for "With how great care") was a papal encyclical issued by Pope Pius IX on 8 December 1864. In it, he decried what he considered significant errors afflicting the modern age. These he listed in an attachment called the Syllabus of Errors, which condemned secularism and religious indifferentism. Context In August 1863, Count Charles Montalembert, a proponent of Liberal Catholicism gave a series of speeches in Mechelen, Belgium, in which he presented his view of the future of modern society and the Church. His first speech aimed to show the necessity of Christianizing the democracy by accepting modern liberties. His second speech dealt with liberty of conscience, and the conclusion he drew was that the Church could be in perfect harmony with religious liberty and with the modern state founded on that liberty, and that everyone is free to hold that the modern state is to be preferred to the one which preceded it. He received support from Engelbert Sterckx, Archbishop ...
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Res Publica Christiana
In medieval and early modern Western political thought, the ''respublica'' or ''res publica Christiana'' refers to the international community of Christian peoples and states. As a Latin phrase, ''res publica Christiana'' combines Christianity with the originally Roman idea of the '' res publica'' ("republic" or "commonwealth") to describe this community and its well-being. A single English word with somewhat comparable meaning is ''Christendom''; it is also translated as "the Christian Commonwealth". History Late antique and medieval use The concept of a ''res publica Christiana'' is first attested in Augustine of Hippo, whose early 5th century work ''The City of God'' contrasted the Christian church favourably against the claims of the Roman Empire to constitute a '' res publica'', a republic or commonwealth. He challenged Rome's legitimacy as a state established for the public good on the grounds that its empire had been won by force and not by justice; by contrast, he clai ...
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Christian State
A Christian state is a country that recognizes a form of Christianity as its official religion and often has a state church (also called an established church), which is a Christian denomination that supports the government and is supported by the government. Historically, the nations of Aksum, Armenia, Ethiopia, Makuria, Holy Roman Empire, as well as the Roman Empire and its continuation, the Byzantine Empire declared themselves as Christian states. Today, several nations officially identify themselves as Christian states or have state churches. These countries include Argentina, Armenia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Denmark (incl. Greenland), England, Ethiopia, Faroe Islands, Georgia, Greece, Hungary,Hungary's Constitution of 2011
Retrieved 9 February 2016.


Relations Between The Catholic Church And The State
The relations between the Catholic Church and the state have been constantly evolving with various forms of government, some of them controversial in retrospect. In its history, the Church has had to deal with various concepts and systems of governance, from the Roman Empire to the medieval divine right of kings, from nineteenth- and twentieth-century concepts of democracy and pluralism to the appearance of left- and right-wing dictatorial regimes. The Second Vatican Council's decree ''Dignitatis humanae'' stated that religious freedom is a civil right that should be recognized in constitutional law. Catholicism and the Roman Emperors Christianity emerged in the 1st century as one of many new religions in the Roman Empire. Early Christians were persecuted as early as 64 A.D. when Nero ordered large numbers of Christians executed in retaliation for the Great Fire of Rome. Christianity remained a growing minority religion in the empire for several centuries. Roman persecutions of ...
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Holy See
The Holy See ( lat, Sancta Sedes, ; it, Santa Sede ), also called the See of Rome, Petrine See or Apostolic See, is the jurisdiction of the Pope in his role as the bishop of Rome. It includes the apostolic episcopal see of the Diocese of Rome, which has ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the Catholic Church and the sovereign city-state known as the Vatican City. According to Catholic tradition it was founded in the first century by Saints Peter and Paul and, by virtue of Petrine and papal primacy, is the focal point of full communion for Catholic Christians around the world. As a sovereign entity, the Holy See is headquartered in, operates from, and exercises "exclusive dominion" over the independent Vatican City State enclave in Rome, of which the pope is sovereign. The Holy See is administered by the Roman Curia (Latin for "Roman Court"), which is the central government of the Catholic Church. The Roman Curia includes various dicasteries, comparable to ministries ...
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Commonweal (magazine)
''Commonweal'' is a liberal American journal of opinion, edited and managed by lay Catholics, headquartered in The Interchurch Center in New York City. It is the oldest independent Catholic journal of opinion in the United States. History Founded in 1924 by Michael Williams (1877–1950) and the Calvert Associates, ''Commonweal'' is the oldest independent Roman Catholic journal of opinion in the United States. The magazine was originally modeled on ''The New Republic'' and ''The Nation'' but “expressive of the Catholic note” in covering literature, the arts, religion, society, and politics. ''Commonweal'' has published the writing of François Mauriac, Georges Bernanos, Hannah Arendt, G. K. Chesterton, Hilaire Belloc, Jacques Maritain, Dorothy Day, Robert Bellah, Graham Greene, Emmanuel Mounier, Conor Cruise O'Brien, Thomas Merton, Wilfrid Sheed, Paul Ramsey, Joseph Bernardin, Abigail McCarthy, Christopher Lasch, Michael Novak, Alasdair MacIntyre, Charles Tayl ...
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International Theological Commission
The International Theological Commission (ITC) is a body of the Roman Curia of the Catholic Church; it advises the magisterium of the church, particularly the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF), a dicastery of the Roman Curia. Its memberships consists of no more than 30 Catholic theologiansMotu Proprio, ''Tredecim Anni'', 6 August 1982. appointed by the pope at the suggestion of the prefect of the CDF for renewable five year terms. They tend to meet annually for a week in Rome, where the commission is based. The commission is closely aligned with the CDF, whose prefect is ''ex officio'' the president of the ITC. In March 2022, Pope Francis reaffirmed that relationship with his apostolic constitution ''Praedicate evangelium'', effective 5 June 2022, even as it changed the CDF's name to the Dicastery for the Doctrine of the Faith. History The ITC traces its origins to an idea presented at the first General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops in 1967. It was established on ...
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