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Detonation
Detonation () is a type of combustion involving a supersonic exothermic front accelerating through a medium that eventually drives a shock front propagating directly in front of it. Detonations propagate supersonically through shock waves with speeds in the range of 1 km/sec and differ from deflagrations which have subsonic flame speeds in the range of 1 m/sec. Detonations occur in both conventional solid and liquid explosives, as well as in reactive gases. The detonation velocity , velocity of detonation in solid and liquid explosives is much higher than that in gaseous ones, which allows the wave system to be observed with greater detail (higher Image resolution , resolution). A very wide variety of fuels may occur as gases (e.g. hydrogen), droplet fogs, or dust suspensions. In addition to dioxygen, oxidants can include halogen compounds, ozone, hydrogen peroxide and Nitrogen oxide , oxides of nitrogen. Gaseous detonations are often associated with a mixture of fuel and oxidan ...
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ZND Theory
The ZND detonation model is a one-dimensional model for the process of detonation of an explosive. It was proposed during World War II independently by Y. B. Zel'dovich, John von Neumann, and Werner Döring, hence the name. This model admits finite-rate chemical reactions and thus the process of detonation consists of the following stages. First, an infinitesimally thin shock wave compresses the explosive to a high pressure called the von Neumann spike. At the von Neumann spike point the explosive still remains unreacted. The spike marks the onset of the zone of exothermic chemical reaction, which finishes at the Chapman–Jouguet state. After that, the detonation products expand backward. In the reference frame in which the shock is stationary, the flow following the shock is subsonic. Because of this, energy release behind the shock is able to be transported acoustically to the shock for its support. For a self-propagating detonation, the shock relaxes to a speed given by t ...
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TNT Detonation On Kaho'olawe Island During Operation Sailor Hat, Shot Bravo, 1965
Trinitrotoluene (), more commonly known as TNT, more specifically 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, and by its preferred IUPAC name 2-methyl-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3. TNT is occasionally used as a reagent in chemical synthesis, but it is best known as an explosive material with convenient handling properties. The explosive yield of TNT is considered to be the standard comparative convention of bombs and asteroid impacts. In chemistry, TNT is used to generate charge transfer salts. History TNT was first prepared in 1863 by German chemist Julius Wilbrand and originally used as a yellow dye. Its potential as an explosive was not recognized for three decades, mainly because it was too difficult to detonate because it was less sensitive than alternatives. Its explosive properties were first discovered in 1891 by another German chemist, Carl Häussermann. TNT can be safely poured when liquid into shell cases, and is so insensitive that ...
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Shock Front
In physics, a shock wave (also spelled shockwave), or shock, is a type of propagating disturbance that moves faster than the local speed of sound in the medium. Like an ordinary wave, a shock wave carries energy and can propagate through a medium but is characterized by an abrupt, nearly discontinuous, change in pressure, temperature, and density of the medium. For the purpose of comparison, in supersonic flows, additional increased expansion may be achieved through an expansion fan, also known as a Prandtl–Meyer expansion fan. The accompanying expansion wave may approach and eventually collide and recombine with the shock wave, creating a process of destructive interference. The sonic boom associated with the passage of a supersonic aircraft is a type of sound wave produced by constructive interference. Unlike solitons (another kind of nonlinear wave), the energy and speed of a shock wave alone dissipates relatively quickly with distance. When a shock wave passes through ...
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Shock Wave
In physics, a shock wave (also spelled shockwave), or shock, is a type of propagating disturbance that moves faster than the local speed of sound in the medium. Like an ordinary wave, a shock wave carries energy and can propagate through a medium but is characterized by an abrupt, nearly discontinuous, change in pressure, temperature, and density of the medium. For the purpose of comparison, in supersonic flows, additional increased expansion may be achieved through an expansion fan, also known as a Prandtl–Meyer expansion fan. The accompanying expansion wave may approach and eventually collide and recombine with the shock wave, creating a process of destructive interference. The sonic boom associated with the passage of a supersonic aircraft is a type of sound wave produced by constructive interference. Unlike solitons (another kind of nonlinear wave), the energy and speed of a shock wave alone dissipates relatively quickly with distance. When a shock wave passes thr ...
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Detonation Velocity
Explosive velocity, also known as detonation velocity or velocity of detonation (VoD), is the velocity at which the shock wave front travels through a detonation, detonated explosive. Explosive velocities are always faster than the local speed of sound in the material. If the explosive is confined before detonation, such as in an Shell (projectile), artillery shell, the force produced is focused on a much smaller area, and the pressure is significantly intensified. This results in an explosive velocity that is higher than if the explosive had been detonated in open air. Unconfined velocities are often approximately 70 to 80 percent of confined velocities. Explosive velocity is increased with smaller particle size (i.e., increased spatial density), increased charge diameter, and increased confinement (i.e., higher pressure). Typical Table of explosive detonation velocities, detonation velocities for organic dust explosions, dust mixtures range from 1400–1650m/s. Gas explosion, Ga ...
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John Von Neumann
John von Neumann (; hu, Neumann János Lajos, ; December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, computer scientist, engineer and polymath. He was regarded as having perhaps the widest coverage of any mathematician of his time and was said to have been "the last representative of the great mathematicians who were equally at home in both pure and applied mathematics". He integrated pure and applied sciences. Von Neumann made major contributions to many fields, including mathematics ( foundations of mathematics, measure theory, functional analysis, ergodic theory, group theory, lattice theory, representation theory, operator algebras, matrix theory, geometry, and numerical analysis), physics ( quantum mechanics, hydrodynamics, ballistics, nuclear physics and quantum statistical mechanics), economics ( game theory and general equilibrium theory), computing ( Von Neumann architecture, linear programming, numeri ...
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Combustion
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke. Combustion does not always result in fire, because a flame is only visible when substances undergoing combustion vaporize, but when it does, a flame is a characteristic indicator of the reaction. While the activation energy must be overcome to initiate combustion (e.g., using a lit match to light a fire), the heat from a flame may provide enough energy to make the reaction self-sustaining. Combustion is often a complicated sequence of elementary radical reactions. Solid fuels, such as wood and coal, first undergo endothermic pyrolysis to produce gaseous fuels whose combustion then supplies the heat required to produce more of them. Combustion is often hot enough that incandescent light in the form of either glowing or a flame is prod ...
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Aleksandr Solomonovich Kompaneets
Alexander Solomonovich Kompaneyets (Russian: Александр Соломонович Компанеец) was born on January 4, 1914 in Ekaterinoslav, Russian Empire (now Dnipro, Ukraine) and died on August 19, 1974 in Palanga, Lithuania. He was a prominent physicist, author of a number of textbooks, and collaborator on the Soviet atomic bomb project who lived mainly in Moscow. Life Kompaneyets was a student of Lev Landau in Kharkiv in the 1930s, where he dealt with solid state physics (electrical conductivity in metals and semiconductors). In 1936 he received his doctorate (candidate title) and habilitated in 1939 (Russian doctorate). He was a professor at the Institute of Chemical Physics at the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow (where he worked from 1946 until the end of his life) and is best known for his introductory textbook on theoretical physics. He also dealt with the physics of detonation, which he wrote about in a book with Yakov Zeldovich, and generally about g ...
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David Chapman (chemist)
David Leonard Chapman FRS (6 December 1869 – 17 January 1958) was an English physical chemist, whose name is associated with the Chapman-Jouguet treatment (on the theory of detonation in gases) and the Gouy-Chapman layer (the surface layer of ions distributed on a charged surface). He was a fellow of Jesus College, Oxford for 37 years, and was in charge there of the last college laboratory at the University of Oxford. Education and early life Chapman was born in Wells, Norfolk but moved with his family to Manchester and attended Manchester Grammar School. He then went to Christ Church, Oxford, obtaining degrees in chemistry (1893, 1st class) and physics (1894, 2nd class). Personal life Campman was by reputation something of a scientific recluse, difficult to dislodge from his laboratory, although he did play a full part in University and College affairs. Away from his teaching and research, he was reserved and somewhat eccentric, but enjoyed golf, cycling and walking. He ...
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Henry Louis Le Chatelier
Henry Louis Le Chatelier (; 8 October 1850 – 17 September 1936) was a French chemist of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. He devised Le Chatelier's principle, used by chemists and chemical engineers to predict the effect a changing condition has on a system in chemical equilibrium. Early life Le Chatelier was born on 8 October 1850 in Paris and was the son of French materials engineer Louis Le Chatelier and Louise Durand. His father was an influential figure who played important roles in the birth of the French aluminium industry, the introduction of the Martin-Siemens processes into the iron and steel industries, and the rise of railway transportation. Le Chatelier's father profoundly influenced his son's future. Henry Louis had one sister, Marie, and four brothers, Louis (1853–1928), Alfred (1855–1929), George (1857–1935), and André (1861–1929). His mother raised the children by regimen, described by Henry Louis: "I was accustomed to a very strict discipline: i ...
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Ernest-François Mallard
Ernest-François Mallard (4 February 1833 – 6 July 1894) was a French mineralogist and a member of the French Academy of Sciences. He is also notable for his work with Henri Louis Le Chatelier in combustion as applied to mining safety."Mallard, (François) Ernest."
– Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography


See also

* Thermal flame theory *
Detonation Detonation () is a type of combustion involving a supersonic exothermic front accelerating through a medium that eventually drives a shock front propagating directly in front of it. Detonations propagate supersonic ...
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Ozone
Ozone (), or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula . It is a pale blue gas with a distinctively pungent smell. It is an allotrope of oxygen that is much less stable than the diatomic allotrope , breaking down in the lower atmosphere to ( dioxygen). Ozone is formed from dioxygen by the action of ultraviolet (UV) light and electrical discharges within the Earth's atmosphere. It is present in very low concentrations throughout the latter, with its highest concentration high in the ozone layer of the stratosphere, which absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Ozone's odour is reminiscent of chlorine, and detectable by many people at concentrations of as little as in air. Ozone's O3 structure was determined in 1865. The molecule was later proven to have a bent structure and to be weakly diamagnetic. In standard conditions, ozone is a pale blue gas that condenses at cryogenic temperatures to a dark blue liquid and finally a violet-b ...
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