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Contact Metamorphism
Metamorphism is the change of mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs naturally in pure form.John P. Rafferty, ed. (2 ...s or geologic texture (distinct arrangement of minerals) in pre-existing rocks In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (geology), rocks of which it is composed, and the proc ... (protolith A protolith (from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: ...s), without the protolith melting into liquid magma Magma () is the molten or semi-molten natural ma ...
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Metamorphic Reaction EN
Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock (geology), rock to new types of rock, in a process called metamorphism. The original rock (protolith) is subjected to temperatures greater than and, often, elevated pressure of or more, causing profound physical or chemical changes. During this process, the rock remains mostly in the solid state, but gradually recrystallizes to a new texture or mineral composition. The protolith may be a sedimentary rock, sedimentary, igneous rock, igneous, or existing metamorphic rock. Metamorphic rocks make up a large part of the Crust (geology)#Earth's crust, Earth's crust and form 12% of the Earth's land surface. They are classified by their protolith, their chemical and mineral makeup, and their Rock microstructure, texture. They may be formed simply by being deeply buried beneath the Earth's surface, where they are subject to high temperatures and the great pressure of the rock layers above. They can also form from plate ...
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Regional Metamorphism
Metamorphism is the change of mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs naturally in pure form.John P. Rafferty, ed. (2 ...s or geologic texture (distinct arrangement of minerals) in pre-existing rocks In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (geology), rocks of which it is composed, and the proc ... (protolith A protolith (from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: ...s), without the protolith melting into liquid magma Magma () is the molten or semi-molten natural ma ...
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Island Arc
Island arcs are long chains of active volcano A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object A planet is an astronomical body orbit In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an physical body, object, such as the trajectory of a planet a ...es with intense seismic activity found along convergent tectonic plate boundaries (such as the Ring of Fire The Ring of Fire (also known as the Pacific Ring of Fire, the Rim of Fire, the Girdle of Fire or the Circum-Pacific belt) is a region around much of the rim of the Pacific Ocean where many Types of volcanic eruptions, volcanic eruptions and e ...). Most island arcs originate on oceanic crust The oceanic crust is the uppermost layer of the oceanic portion of the tectonic plates This is a list of tectonic plates on Earth's surface. Tectonic plates are pieces of Earth's crust 350px, Plates in the crust of Earth Earth's crust i ... and have resulted from the descent ...
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Tectonic Plate
This is a list of tectonic plates on Earth's surface Earth is the third planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar remnant that is massive enough to be Hydrostatic equilibrium, rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to c .... Tectonic plates This is a list of tectonic plates on Earth's surface. Tectonic plates are pieces of Earth's crust 350px, Plates in the crust of Earth Earth's crust is a thin shell on the outside of Earth, accounting for less than 1% of Earth's volume. It is ... are pieces of Earth's crust 350px, Plates in the crust of Earth Earth's crust is a thin shell on the outside of Earth, accounting for less than 1% of Earth's volume. It is the top component of the lithosphere, a division of Earth's layers that includes the Crust (geology), ... and uppermost mantle Mantle may refer to: *Mantle (geology) A mantle is a layer inside a planetary body A planet is an astron ...
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Orogeny
Orogeny is the primary mechanism by which mountains are formed on continents. An orogeny is an event that takes place at a convergent plate margin when plate motion compresses the margin. This leads to both structural deformation Deformation can refer to: * Deformation (engineering), changes in an object's shape or form due to the application of a force or forces. ** Deformation (mechanics), such changes considered and analyzed as displacements of continuum bodies. * Defo ... and compositional differentiation of Earth's lithosphere A lithosphere ( grc, λίθος [] for "rocky", and [] for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial planet, terrestrial-type planet or natural satellite. On Earth, it is composed of the crust (geology), crust and the portion o ... ( crust and uppermost mantle). An ''orogenic belt An orogeny is an event that leads to both structural Deformation (physics), deformation and compositional differentiation of the Earth's lithos ...
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Erosion
In earth science Earth science or geoscience includes all fields of natural science Natural science is a branch of science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and Ta ..., erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all ... or wind Wind is the natural movement of air or other gases relative to a planet's surface. Wind occurs on a range of scales, from thunderstorm A thunderstorm, also known as an electrical storm or a lightning storm, is a storm characterized by th ...) that removes soil Surface-water- gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland.">Northern_Ireland.html" ;"title="glacial till, Northe ...
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Convergent Plate Boundary
A convergent boundary (also known as a destructive boundary) is an area on Earth where two or more lithospheric plates collide. One plate eventually slides beneath the other, a process known as subduction Subduction is a geological process in which the oceanic lithosphere A lithosphere ( grc, λίθος [] for "rocky", and [] for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial planet, terrestrial-type planet or natural satellite. O .... The subduction zone can be defined by a plane where many earthquakes occur, called the Wadati–Benioff zone Image:Kuril Benioff zone.JPG, 240px, Seismicity cross-section, Kuril Islands subduction zone, 2006 Kuril Islands earthquake, 15 November 2006, 8.3 Mw event marked as star A Wadati–Benioff zone (also Benioff–Wadati zone or Benioff zone or Beniof .... These collisions happen on scales of millions to tens of millions of years and can lead to volcanism, earthquakes, orogenesis Orogeny is the primary mechanism by which ...
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Continental Crust
Continental crust is the layer of igneous Igneous rock (derived from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the p ..., sedimentary Sedimentary rocks are types of rock (geology), rock that are formed by the accumulation or deposition of mineral or organic matter, organic particles at Earth#Surface, Earth's surface, followed by cementation (geology), cementation. Sedimentatio ..., and metamorphic rock , a type of metamorphic rock Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock (geology), rock to new types of rock, in a process called metamorphism upright=1.35, Schematic representation of a metamorphic reaction. Abbreviat ...s that forms the geological continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography ...
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Pascal (unit)
The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress (physics), stress, Young's modulus, and ultimate tensile strength. The unit, named after Blaise Pascal, is defined as one Newton (unit), newton per square metre and is equivalent to 10 barye (Ba) in the CGS system. The unit of measurement called Standard atmosphere (unit), standard atmosphere (atm) is defined as 101,325 Pa. Common multiple units of the pascal are the hectopascal (1 hPa = 100 Pa), which is equal to one Bar (unit)#Usage, millibar, and the kilopascal (1 kPa = 1000 Pa), which is equal to one centibar. Meteorology, Meteorological observations typically report atmospheric pressure in hectopascals per the recommendation of the World Meteorological Organization. Reports in the United States typically use inches of mercury or Bar (unit)#Usage, millibars, in Canada these reports are given in kilopascals. Etymology The unit is named after Blaise ...
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Migmatite
Migmatite is a composite rock (geology), rock found in medium and high-grade metamorphic environments. It consists of two or more constituents often layered repetitively; one layer was formerly paleosome, a metamorphic rock that was reconstituted subsequently by partial melting; the alternate layer has a Pegmatite, pegmatitic, Aplite, aplitic, Granite, granitic or generally plutonic appearance. Commonly, migmatites occur below deformed metamorphic rocks that represent the base of eroded mountain chains, commonly within Precambrian craton, cratonic blocks, Migmatites form under extreme temperature and pressure conditions during Metamorphism#Prograde_and_retrograde, prograde metamorphism, when partial melting occurs in metamorphic paleosome. Components Solid solution, exsolved by partial melting are called neosome (meaning ‘new body’), which may or may not be heterogeneous at the microscopic to macroscopic scale. Migmatites often appear as tightly, incoherently folded veins (p ...
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Sedimentary Rock
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compound, chemical composition and the way in w ... that are formed by the accumulation or deposition of mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs naturally in pure form.John P. Rafferty, ed. (2 ... or organic Organic may refer to: * Organic, of or relating to an organism, a living entity * Organic, of or relating to an anatomical organ (anatomy), organ Chemistry * Organic matter, matter that has come from a once-living organism, is capable of decay or ... particles at Earth's surface Earth is the third planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar ...
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Recrystallization (geology)
In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek ..., solid-state recrystallization is a metamorphic Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the mineral ... process that occurs under high temperatures and pressures where atoms of minerals are reorganized by diffusion and/or dislocation glide. The mineral composition may remain unchanged. This process can be illustrated by observing how snow recrystallizes to ice. As opposed to metasomatism Metasomatism (from the Greek μετά (change) and σῶμα (body)) is the chemical alteration of a rock by hydrothermal and other fluids. ...
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