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Constitution Of Puerto Rico
The Constitution of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico ( es, Constitución del Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico) is the controlling government document of Puerto Rico. It is composed of nine articles detailing the structure of the government as well as the function of several of its institutions. The document also contains an extensive and specific bill of rights. It was ratified by Puerto Rico's electorate in a referendum on March 3, 1952, and on July 25, 1952, Governor Luis Muñoz Marín proclaimed that the constitution was in effect. July 25 is known as Constitution Day. The United States maintains ultimate sovereignty over Puerto Rico. Under this Constitution, Puerto Rico officially identifies as the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. History The United States government authorized Puerto Rico to draft its own constitution with a law passed in 1950. The Constitutional Assembly met for a period of several months between 1951 and 1952 in which the document was written. The law ...
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Capitol Of Puerto Rico
The Capitol of Puerto Rico ( es, Capitolio de Puerto Rico) is located on the Islet of San Juan just outside the walls of Old San Juan. The building is home to the bicameral Legislative Assembly, composed of the House of Representatives and Senate. The building is located in the Puerta de Tierra sector of San Juan. The Capitol is also commonly referred to as the ''Palace of the Laws'' ( es, Palacio de las Leyes). History Prior to the establishment of the Capitol, the Legislative Assembly used the Provincial Delegation Building, which now houses the Department of State. The idea of constructing a capitol was first introduced by former Resident Commissioner Luis Muñoz Rivera in 1907, and was partly meant to demonstrate some degree of civilian rule in the island, which at the time was already a colony of the United States. The project proposed by Muñoz Rivera assigned $3 million for the construction and established rules for a contest among architectures to decide whi ...
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82nd United States Congress
The 82nd United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from January 3, 1951, to January 3, 1953, during the last two years of the second administration of U.S. President Harry S. Truman. The apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the Sixteenth Census of the United States in 1940. Both chambers had a Democratic majority (albeit reduced from the 81st Congress), and with President Truman, maintained an overall federal government trifecta. Major events * March 29, 1951: Ethel and Julius Rosenberg were convicted of conspiracy to commit espionage. On April 5 they were sentenced to receive the death penalty. * April 11, 1951: U.S. President Harry S Truman relieved General Douglas MacArthur of his Far Eastern commands. * April 13, 1951: Congress passed a large defense budget 37 ...
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Puerto Rican Independence Party
The Puerto Rican Independence Party ( es, Partido Independentista Puertorriqueño, PIP) is a social-democratic political party in Puerto Rico that campaigns for the independence of Puerto Rico from the United States. Those who follow the PIP ideology are usually called ''independentistas'', ''pipiolos'', or sometimes just ''pro-independence activists''. History The party began as the electoral wing of the Puerto Rican independence movement. It is the largest of the independence parties, and the only one that is on the ballot during elections (other candidates must be added in by hand). In 1948, two years after being founded, the PIP gathered 10.2% of the votes in the island. In 1952, two years after an armed uprising of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party, it obtained 19% of the votes, its highest electoral support ever, which made it the second electoral party on the island for a moment. In 1956 it took 12.4% of the votes; in 1960 3.1%; in 1964, 4%; in 1968, 3.5; in 1972, ...
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Puerto Rican Socialist Party
The Puerto Rican Socialist Party ( es, Partido Socialista Puertorriqueño, PSP) was a Marxist and pro-independence political party in Puerto Rico seeking the end of United States of America control on the Hispanic and Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. It proposed a "democratic workers' republic". History The PSP originated as the Movimiento Pro-Independencia (MPI), founded on January 11, 1959, in the city of Mayagüez. The MPI was formed by a group of dissidents from the Puerto Rican Independence Party (PIP), former militants of the Nationalist Party of Puerto Rico and the Communist Party of Puerto Rico, and university students, some of them members of the Federación de Universitarios Pro Independencia (FUPI), including such figures as Lidia Barreto, Rafael Cancel Rodríguez, Loida Figueroa Mercado, Juan Mari Brás and Santiago Mari Pesquera, among others. The MPI was greatly influenced by the Cuban Revolution. During the 1964 and 1968 elections, and the 1967 ple ...
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Republican Statehood Party
Partido Estadista Republicano (Republican Statehood Party) was a political party in Puerto Rico that operated from 1956 to 1968. Its president was Miguel A. García Méndez. The party formed in 1952 after Partido Estadista Puertorriqueño became "Partido Estadista Republicano". It dissolved in 1968 after a split in the party forced it to fold, giving way to Partido Nuevo Progresista. Trajectory and demise During the 1967 Puerto Rican status referendum, Miguel A. García Méndez led a boycott of the plebiscite arguing that the results would be non-binding. His position made for a serious division within Partido Estadista Republicano. As a result many members of the top brass of the party left and formed their own pro-statehood party. This new party, led by Luis A. Ferré Don Luis Alberto Ferré Aguayo (February 17, 1904 October 20, 2003) was a Puerto Rican engineer, industrialist, politician, philanthropist, and a patron of the arts. He was the governor of Puerto Rico f ...
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Puerto Rican Law 600 Referendum, 1951
A referendum on (United States) Public Law 81-600, granting improved self-government, was held in Puerto Rico on 4 June 1951. Nohlen, D (2005) ''Elections in the Americas: A data handbook, Volume I'', p552 It was approved by 76.5% of voters.Nohlen, p556 Results References {{Puerto Rican elections 1951 referendums 1951 1951 in Puerto Rico June 1951 events in North America ...
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Recall Referendum
A recall election (also called a recall referendum, recall petition or representative recall) is a procedure by which, in certain polities, voters can remove an elected official from office through a referendum before that official's term of office has ended. Recalls, which are initiated when sufficient voters sign a petition, have a history dating back to the constitution in ancient Athenian democracy and feature in several current constitutions. In indirect or representative democracy, people's representatives are elected and these representatives serve for a specific period of time. However, where the facility to recall exists, if any representative comes to be perceived as not properly discharging their responsibilities, they can be called back with the written request of a specific number or proportion of voters. Even where they are legally available, recall elections are only commonly held in a small number of countries including the United States, Peru, Ecuador, and J ...
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Pedro Pierluisi
Pedro Rafael Pierluisi Urrutia (born April 26, 1959) is a Puerto Rican politician and lawyer currently serving as governor of Puerto Rico. He has previously served as Secretary of Justice, Resident Commissioner, acting Secretary of State, interim governor of Puerto Rico and as private attorney for Puerto Rico's fiscal oversight board under the Puerto Rico Oversight, Management, and Economic Stability Act. Early life and education Pierluisi was born on April 26, 1959, in San Juan, Puerto Rico. His parents are Jorge Pierluisi Díaz and Doris Urrutia. He attended Colegio Marista Guaynabo in Guaynabo, graduating in 1977. In 1981, he received a Bachelor of Arts degree in American History from Tulane University, and later earned a Juris Doctor degree from George Washington University Law School in 1984. He was President of the Puerto Rico Statehood Students Association chapter at Tulane University. During his studies at George Washington University, Pierluisi interned at ...
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At-large
At large (''before a noun'': at-large) is a description for members of a governing body who are elected or appointed to represent a whole membership or population (notably a city, county, state, province, nation, club or association), rather than a subset. In multi-hierarchical bodies the term rarely extends to a tier beneath the highest division. A contrast is implied, with certain electoral districts or narrower divisions. It can be given to the associated territory, if any, to denote its undivided nature, in a specific context. Unambiguous synonyms are the prefixes of cross-, all- or whole-, such as cross-membership, or all-state. The term is used as a suffix referring to specific members (such as the U.S. congressional Representative/the Member/Rep. for Wyoming ''at large''). It figures as a generic prefix of its subject matter (such as Wyoming is an at-large U.S. congressional district, at present). It is commonly used when making or highlighting a direct contrast with s ...
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House Of Representatives Of Puerto Rico
The House of Representatives of Puerto Rico ( es, Cámara de Representantes de Puerto Rico) is the lower house of the Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico, the bicameral territorial legislature of Puerto Rico. The House, together with the Senate, control the legislative branch of the government of Puerto Rico. The structure and responsibilities of the House are defined in Article III of the Constitution of Puerto Rico, which vests all legislative power in the Legislative Assembly. Every bill must be passed by the Senate and by the House, and signed by the governor in order to become law. The House has exclusive power to initiate impeachments and bring an indictment. The constitution also establishes that the appointment of the Secretary of State and the Comptroller require the advice and consent of the House, with all other appointments confirmed by the Senate alone. Financially, all bills for raising revenue must originate in the House. Structurally, the House is norm ...
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Tatito Hernández
Rafael "Tatito" Hernández Montañez (born April 14, 1972) is a Puerto Rican politician affiliated with the Popular Democratic Party (PPD). He is also a Democrat. He has been a member of the Puerto Rico House of Representatives since 2009, representing District 11, which includes the town of Dorado and parts of the towns of Vega Alta and Vega Baja. In the 2020 elections he was re-elected and chosen as speaker of the house in 2021. Early life and education Rafael "Tatito" Hernández was born April 14, 1972 in Dorado. He received a Bachelor of Science in Surveying and Cartography from the Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Hernandez also attended the Mortgage Bankers School of Puerto Rico and the Alberto Hernandez Real Estate School, where he took several courses on the origin, processes and analyses of loans, mortgages, and real estate. He served in the United States Navy Reserve for eight years. Political career He first ran for the a s ...
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Popular Democratic Party (Puerto Rico)
The Popular Democratic Party ( es, Partido Popular Democrático, PPD) is a political party in Puerto Rico that advocates to continue as a Commonwealth of the United States with self-governance. The party was founded in 1938 by dissidents from the Puerto Rican Liberal Party and the Unionist Party and originally promoted policies on the center-left.''Government / Brief history of elections in Puerto Rico.''
Encyclopedia Puerto Rico. Fundación Puertorriqueña de las Humanidades. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
In recent years, however, its leaders have described the party as . As one of the long-standing parties on the island, the PPD has played a ...
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