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Clearstream
Clearstream is a financial services company that specializes in the settlement of securities transactions and is owned by Deutsche Börse AG. It provides settlement and custody as well as other related services for securities across all asset classes. It is one of two European International central securities depositories (Euroclear being the other). Clearstream operates securities settlement systems based in both Luxembourg and Germany, which allow for the holding and transfer of securities. Clearstream operates its International Central Securities Depository (ICSD) from Luxembourg. It is also a joint partner in the Luxembourgish Central Securities Depository (CSD), LuxCSD, together with the Central Bank of Luxembourg. In Germany, Clearstream operates the German CSD, Clearstream Banking AG. Clearstream has links to over 50 domestic markets worldwide, and also issues and safekeeps Eurobonds. In 2014, the value of assets under custody on behalf of customers averaged 12.2 t ...
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Denis Robert
Denis Robert (born 9 May 1958) is a French investigative journalist, novelist and filmmaker. He formerly worked for twelve years for the newspaper ''Libération''. Robert's books, films and press interviews, denouncing the opaque workings of the Clearstream clearing house, earned him into more than 60 lawsuits in France, Belgium and Luxembourg by banks, such as Bank Menatep (a Russian bank) and BGL (BNP Paribas Fortis), as well as the Clearstream company. In 2008, he was involved in a polemic with Philippe Val (former director of the magazine ''Charlie Hebdo'') and journalist Edwy Plenel in relation to the Clearstream affair. On 3 February 2011, after ten years of litigation, Robert was cleared by the Court of Cassation of his conviction for both of his books ''Révélation$'' and ''La Boîte noire'', as well as for his documentary film ''Les Dissimulateurs''. Robert is also a painter, whose work is displayed in Paris art galleries. Biography Robert studied psychology an ...
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National Settlement Depository
The National Settlement Depository (NSD), headquartered in Moscow, is a Russian non-bank financial institution and central securities depository (CSD). It provides depository, settlement (bank account), and related services to financial market entities. Its services cover both securities listed in Russia's 2011 Federal Law "On the Central Securities Depository", and other Russian and foreign equity and debt securities. NSD is the CSD of the Russian Federation, and was assigned CSD status by the Russian Federal Financial Markets Service in 2012. It is the largest securities depository in Russia by market value of equity and debt securities held in custody, which in June 2022 were 70 trillion roubles ($1.12 trillion). It is a member of the Moscow Exchange Group. In March 2022, in the wake of the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, NSD's accounts were blocked and frozen at international CSDs Euroclear and Clearstream (CSDs which together held €50tn of assets on behalf of investors). ...
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Euroclear
Euroclear is a Belgium-based financial services company that specializes in the settlement of securities transactions, as well as the safekeeping and asset servicing of these securities. It was founded in 1968 as part of J.P. Morgan & Co. to settle trades on the then developing eurobond market. It is one of two European international central securities depositories (Clearstream being the other). Activity Euroclear settles domestic and international securities transactions, covering bonds, equities, derivatives, and investment funds. Euroclear provides securities services to financial institutions located in more than 90 countries. In addition to its role as an international central securities depository (ICSD), Euroclear also acts as the central securities depository (CSD) for Belgian, Dutch, Finnish, French, Irish, Swedish, and UK securities. Euroclear also owns EMXCo, the UK's leading provider of investment-fund order routing. Retail investors are able to have direct ac ...
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The Clearstream Affair
''The Clearstream Affair'' (French title: ''L'Enquête'') is a 2014 thriller film directed by Vincent Garenq, based on the Clearstream scandal in 2001. Cast * Gilles Lellouche as Denis Robert * Charles Berling as Judge Renaud Van Ruymbeke * Laurent Capelluto as Imah Lahoud * Florence Loiret Caille as Géraldine Robert * Christian Kmiotek as Régis Hempel * Grégoire Bonnet as Laurent Beccaria * Antoine Gouy as Florian Bourges * Eric Naggar as Jean-Louis Gergorin * Laurent D'Olce as Vincent Peillon * Gilles Arbona as General Rondot * Hervé Falloux as Dominique de Villepin * Thomas Séraphine as Arnaud Montebourg * Sarah Suco as The Assistant Accolades Other works Vincent Garenq's other films include : Baby Love, 2008, : Comme les autres, 2009, : Guilty (Présumé coupable), 2011, : Kalinka (Au nom de ma fille ''Kalinka'' (french: Au nom de ma fille) (released on home video and VOD as ''In Her Name'') is a 2016 French-German drama film directed by . The fil ...
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Central Securities Depository
A central securities depository (CSD) is a specialized financial organization holding securities like shares, either in certificated or uncertificated ( dematerialized) form, allowing ownership to be easily transferred through a book entry rather than by a transfer of physical certificates. This allows brokers and financial companies to hold their securities at one location where they can be available for clearing and settlement. This is usually done electronically, making it much faster and easier than was traditionally the case where physical certificates had to be exchanged after a trade had been completed. In some cases these organizations also carry out centralized comparison, and transaction processing such as clearing and settlement of securities transfers, securities pledges, and securities freezes. Scope A CSD can be national or international in nature, and may be for a specific type of security, such as government bonds. Domestic central securities depository Many c ...
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Deutsche Börse
Deutsche Börse AG () or the Deutsche Börse Group, is a German company offering marketplace organizing for the trading of shares and other securities. It is also a transaction services provider. It gives companies and investors access to global capital markets. It is a joint stock company and was founded in 1992. The headquarters are in Frankfurt. As of December 2010, the over 765 companies listed had a combined market capitalization of . On 1 October 2014, Deutsche Börse AG became the 14th announced member of the United Nations Sustainable Stock Exchanges initiative. Company More than 3,200 employees service customers in Europe, the United States, and Asia. Deutsche Börse has locations in Germany, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Czech Republic, and Spain, as well as representative offices in Beijing, London, Paris, Chicago, New York, Hong Kong, and Dubai. FWB Frankfurter Wertpapierbörse (Frankfurt Stock Exchange), is one of the world's largest trading centers for securitie ...
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Securities
A security is a tradable financial asset. The term commonly refers to any form of financial instrument, but its legal definition varies by jurisdiction. In some countries and languages people commonly use the term "security" to refer to any form of financial instrument, even though the underlying legal and regulatory regime may not have such a broad definition. In some jurisdictions the term specifically excludes financial instruments other than equities and Fixed income instruments. In some jurisdictions it includes some instruments that are close to equities and fixed income, e.g., equity warrants. Securities may be represented by a certificate or, more typically, they may be "non-certificated", that is in electronic ( dematerialized) or "book entry only" form. Certificates may be ''bearer'', meaning they entitle the holder to rights under the security merely by holding the security, or ''registered'', meaning they entitle the holder to rights only if they appear on a secur ...
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Settlement (finance)
Settlement is the "final step in the transfer of ownership involving the physical exchange of securities or payment". After settlement, the obligations of all the parties have been discharged and the transaction is considered complete. In the context of securities, settlement involves their delivery to the beneficiary, usually against ( in simultaneous exchange for) payment of money, to fulfill contractual obligations, such as those arising under securities trades. Nowadays, settlement typically takes place in a central securities depository. In the United States, the settlement date for marketable stocks is usually 2 business days or T+2 after the trade is executed, and for listed options and government securities it is usually 1 day after the execution. In Europe, settlement date has also been adopted as 2 business days after the trade is executed. As part of performance on the delivery obligations entailed by the trade, settlement involves the delivery of securities and the c ...
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Eurobond (international)
A eurobond is an international bond that is denominated in a currency not native to the country where it is issued. They are also called external bonds. They are usually categorised according to the currency in which they are issued: eurodollar, euroyen, and so on. The name became somewhat misleading with the advent of the euro currency in 1999; eurobonds were created in the 1960s, before the euro existed, and thus the etymology is to "European bonds" rather than "bonds denominated in the Euro currency". The eurobond market was traditionally centered in the City of London, with Luxembourg also being a primary listing center for these instruments. Eurobonds have since expanded and are traded throughout the world, with Singapore and Tokyo being notable markets as well. These bonds were originally created to escape regulation: by trading in US dollars in London, certain financial requirements of the US government unpopular with bankers could be evaded, and London was happy to wel ...
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Deutsche Bundesbank
The Deutsche Bundesbank (), literally "German Federal Bank", is the central bank of the Federal Republic of Germany and as such part of the European System of Central Banks (ESCB). Due to its strength and former size, the Bundesbank is the most influential member of the ESCB. Both the Bundesbank and the European Central Bank (ECB) are located in Frankfurt, Germany. It is sometimes referred to as "Buba" for Bundesbank, while its usual abbreviation is BBk in Germany and internationally DBB. The Bundesbank was established in 1957 and succeeded the Bank deutscher Länder, which introduced the Deutsche Mark on 20 June 1948. Until the euro was physically introduced in 2002, the Bundesbank was the central bank of the former Deutsche Mark ("German Mark", sometimes known in English as the "Deutschmark"). The Bundesbank was the first central bank to be given full independence, leading this form of central bank to be referred to as the ''Bundesbank model'', as opposed, for instance, to ...
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Monetary Authority Of Singapore
The Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS) is the central bank and financial regulatory authority of Singapore. It administers the various statutes pertaining to money, banking, insurance, securities and the financial sector in general, as well as currency issuance. It was established in 1971 to act as the banker to and as a financial agent of the Government of Singapore. History The MAS was founded in 1971 to oversee various monetary functions associated with banking and finance. Before its establishment, monetary functions were performed by government departments and agencies. The acronym for its name resembles ''mas'', the word for 'gold' in Malay, Singapore's national language – although the acronym is pronounced with each of its initial alphabets. As Singapore progressed, an increasingly complex banking and monetary environment required more dynamic and coherent monetary administration. Therefore, in 1970, the Parliament of Singapore passed the Monetary Authority of S ...
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Federal Financial Supervisory Authority
The Federal Financial Supervisory Authority (german: Bundesanstalt für Finanzdienstleistungsaufsicht, Bundesanstalt für Finanzdienstleistungsaufsicht) better known by its abbreviation BaFin is the financial regulatory authority for Germany. It is an independent federal institution with headquarters in Bonn and Frankfurt and falls under the supervision of the Federal Ministry of Finance. BaFin supervises about 2,700 banks, 800 financial services institutions, and over 700 insurance undertakings. History Background Prudential banking supervision in Germany essentially started as a consequence of the banking crisis of 1931, prior to which the only supervised credit institutions were the public savings banks. On , a decree established the office of (), for which Chancellor Heinrich Brüning appointed . In 1934, this was transformed into the , by new comprehensive banking legislation (german: Kreditwesengesetz of ). Initially the Reichsbank was associated with the supervisor ...
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