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Caritive
In linguistics, abessive (abbreviated or ), caritive and privative (abbreviated ) is the grammatical case expressing the lack or absence of the marked noun. In English, the corresponding function is expressed by the preposition ''without'' or by the suffix ''-less.'' The name ''abessive'' is derived from "to be away/absent", and is especially used in reference to Uralic languages. The name ''caritive'' is derived from la, carere, link=no "to lack", and is especially used in reference to Caucasian languages. The name ''privative'' is derived from la, privare, link=no "to deprive". In Afro-Asiatic languages Somali In the Somali language, the abessive case is marked by or and dropping all but the first syllable on certain words. For example: : "love" : "loveless" : "clothes" : "clothesless," i.e., naked In Australian languages Martuthunira In Martuthunira, the privative case is formed with either or . In Uralic languages Finnish In the Finnish language, the abe ...
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Finnish Language
Finnish (endonym: or ) is a Uralic language of the Finnic branch, spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside of Finland. Finnish is one of the two official languages of Finland (the other being Swedish). In Sweden, both Finnish and Meänkieli (which has significant mutual intelligibility with Finnish) are official minority languages. The Kven language, which like Meänkieli is mutually intelligible with Finnish, is spoken in the Norwegian county Troms og Finnmark by a minority group of Finnish descent. Finnish is typologically agglutinative and uses almost exclusively suffixal affixation. Nouns, adjectives, pronouns, numerals and verbs are inflected depending on their role in the sentence. Sentences are normally formed with subject–verb–object word order, although the extensive use of inflection allows them to be ordered differently. Word order variations are often reserved for differences in information structure. Finnish ort ...
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Abessive
In linguistics, abessive (abbreviated or ), caritive and privative (abbreviated ) is the grammatical case expressing the lack or absence of the marked noun. In English, the corresponding function is expressed by the preposition ''without'' or by the suffix '' -less.'' The name ''abessive'' is derived from "to be away/absent", and is especially used in reference to Uralic languages. The name ''caritive'' is derived from la, carere, link=no "to lack", and is especially used in reference to Caucasian languages. The name ''privative'' is derived from la, privare, link=no "to deprive". In Afro-Asiatic languages Somali In the Somali language, the abessive case is marked by or and dropping all but the first syllable on certain words. For example: : "love" : "loveless" : "clothes" : "clothesless," i.e., naked In Australian languages Martuthunira In Martuthunira, the privative case is formed with either or . In Uralic languages Finnish In the Finnish language, the abessive ...
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Linguistics
Linguistics is the scientific study of human language. It is called a scientific study because it entails a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise analysis of all aspects of language, particularly its nature and structure. Linguistics is concerned with both the cognitive and social aspects of language. It is considered a scientific field as well as an academic discipline; it has been classified as a social science, natural science, cognitive science,Thagard, PaulCognitive Science, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2008 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.). or part of the humanities. Traditional areas of linguistic analysis correspond to phenomena found in human linguistic systems, such as syntax (rules governing the structure of sentences); semantics (meaning); morphology (structure of words); phonetics (speech sounds and equivalent gestures in sign languages); phonology (the abstract sound system of a particular language); and pragmatics (how social cont ...
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Nouns
A noun () is a word that generally functions as the name of a specific object or set of objects, such as living creatures, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.Example nouns for: * Living creatures (including people, alive, dead or imaginary): ''mushrooms, dogs, Afro-Caribbeans, rosebushes, Nelson Mandela, bacteria, Klingons'', etc. * Physical objects: ''hammers, pencils, Earth, guitars, atoms, stones, boots, shadows'', etc. * Places: ''closets, temples, rivers, Antarctica, houses, Grand Canyon, utopia'', etc. * Actions: ''swimming, exercises, diffusions, explosions, flight, electrification, embezzlement'', etc. * Qualities: ''colors, lengths, deafness, weights, roundness, symmetry, warp speed,'' etc. * Mental or physical states of existence: ''jealousy, sleep, heat, joy, stomachache, confusion, mind meld,'' etc. Lexical categories (parts of speech) are defined in terms of the ways in which their members combine with other kinds of expressions. The syn ...
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Turkish Language
Turkish ( , ), also referred to as Turkish of Turkey (''Türkiye Türkçesi''), is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 80 to 90 million speakers. It is the national language of Turkey and Northern Cyprus. Significant smaller groups of Turkish speakers also exist in Iraq, Syria, Germany, Austria, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Greece, the Caucasus, and other parts of Europe and Central Asia. Cyprus has requested the European Union to add Turkish as an official language, even though Turkey is not a member state. Turkish is the 13th most spoken language in the world. To the west, the influence of Ottoman Turkish—the variety of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire—spread as the Ottoman Empire expanded. In 1928, as one of Atatürk's Reforms in the early years of the Republic of Turkey, the Ottoman Turkish alphabet was replaced with a Latin alphabet. The distinctive characteristics of the Tur ...
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Bashkir Language
Bashkir (, ; Bashkir: ''Bashqortsa'', ''Bashqort tele'', ) is a Turkic language belonging to the Kipchak branch. It is co-official with Russian in Bashkortostan. It is spoken by approximately 1.4 million native speakers in Russia, as well as in Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Estonia and other neighboring post-Soviet states, and among the Bashkir diaspora. It has three dialect groups: Southern, Eastern and Northwestern. Speakers Speakers of Bashkir mostly live in the republic of Bashkortostan (a republic within the Russian Federation). Many speakers also live in Tatarstan, Chelyabinsk, Orenburg, Tyumen, Sverdlovsk and Kurgan Oblasts and other regions of Russia. Minor Bashkir groups also live in Kazakhstan and other countries. Classification Bashkir together with Tatar belongs to the Bulgaric (russian: кыпчакско-булгарская) subgroups of the Kipchak languages. They share the same vocalism and the vowel shifts (see below) that make both languag ...
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Hungarian Language
Hungarian () is an Uralic language spoken in Hungary and parts of several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary, it is also spoken by Hungarian communities in southern Slovakia, western Ukraine ( Subcarpathia), central and western Romania (Transylvania), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, northeastern Slovenia (Prekmurje), and eastern Austria. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States and Canada) and Israel. With 17 million speakers, it is the Uralic family's largest member by number of speakers. Classification Hungarian is a member of the Uralic language family. Linguistic connections between Hungarian and other Uralic languages were noticed in the 1670s, and the family itself (then called Finno-Ugric) was established in 1717. Hungarian has traditionally been assigned to the Ugr ...
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Cranberry Morpheme
In linguistic morphology a cranberry morpheme (also called unique morpheme or fossilized term) is a type of bound morpheme that cannot be assigned an ''independent'' meaning and grammatical function, but nonetheless serves to distinguish one word from another. Etymology The eponymous archetypal example is the ''cran'' of '' cranberry''. Unrelated to the homonym '' cran'' with the meaning "''a case of herrings''", this ''cran'' actually comes from '' crane'' (the bird), although the connection is not immediately evident. Similarly, ''mul'' (from Latin '' morus'', the mulberry tree) exists only in ''mulberry''. Phonetically, the first morpheme of ''raspberry'' also counts as a cranberry morpheme, even though the word "rasp" does occur by itself. Compare these with ''blackberry'', which has two obvious unbound morphemes ("black" + "berry"), and to ''loganberry'' and ''boysenberry'', both of which have first morphemes derived from surnames (James Harvey Logan and Rudolph Boysen, ...
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Inari Sami Language
Inari may refer to: Shinto * Inari Ōkami, a Shinto spirit ** Mount Inari in Japan, site of Fushimi Inari-taisha, the main Shinto shrine to Inari ** Inari Shrine, shrines to the Shinto god Inari * Inari-zushi, a type of sushi Places * Inari, Finland, municipality * Inari (village), in the municipality of the same name in Finland * Lake Inari, Finland * Inari Station, a railway station in Fushimi-ku, Kyoto, Japan Astronomy * 1532 Inari, a main-belt asteroid Given name * Inari Karsh (born 1953), professor of Middle East and Mediterranean Studies at King's College London * Inari Vachs (born 1974), American pornographic actress Fictional characters * Inari, minor character in the manga/anime ''Naruto'' * Human sub-species that can see in the dark from the television series ''Andromeda'' * Inari Raith, a minor character from ''The Dresden Files'' * A deity and marriage candidate in the Nintendo 3DS game Story of Seasons: Trio of Towns Anthropology * Inari Sami people, a S ...
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Converb
In theoretical linguistics, a converb (abbreviated ) is a nonfinite verb form that serves to express adverbial subordination: notions like 'when', 'because', 'after' and 'while'. Other terms that have been used to refer to converbs include ''adverbial participle'', ''conjunctive participle'', ''gerund'', ''gerundive'' and ''verbal adverb'' (Ylikoski 2003). Converbs are differentiated from coverbs, verbs in complex predicates in languages that have the serial verb construction. Converbs can be observed in Turkic languages, Mongolic languages (especially Mongolian), and Tungusic languages. Etymology The term was coined for Mongolian by Ramstedt (1903) and until recently, it was used mostly by specialists of Mongolic and Turkic languages to describe non-finite verbs that could be used for both coordination and subordination. Nedjalkov & Nedjalkov (1987) first adopted the term for general typological use, followed by Haspelmath & König (1995). Description A converb depends sy ...
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Comitative
In grammar, the comitative case (; abbreviated ) is a grammatical case that denotes accompaniment. In English, the preposition "with", in the sense of "in company with" or "together with", plays a substantially similar role (other uses of "with", like in the meaning of "using" or "by means of" (I cut bread with a knife), correspond to the instrumental case or related cases). Core meaning The comitative case encodes a relationship of "accompaniment" between two participants in an event, called the "accompanier" and the "companion". In addition, there is a "relator" (which can be of multiple lexical categories, but is most commonly an affix or adposition). Use of the comitative case gives prominence to the accompanier. This Italian sentence is an example: : ''il_professore''.html" ;"title="/nowiki>''il professore''">/nowiki>''il professore''/nowiki>accompanier ''entra nell'aula'' ''con''.html" ;"title="/nowiki>''con''">/nowiki>''con''/nowiki>relator ''i_suoi_studenti''.html" ;"titl ...
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