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Butanediol Fermentation
2,3-Butanediol fermentation is anaerobic fermentation of glucose with 2,3-butanediol as one of the end products. The overall stoichiometry of the reaction is :2 pyruvate + NADH --> 2 CO2 + 2,3-butanediol. Butanediol fermentation is typical for the facultative anaerobes '' Klebsiella'' and ''Enterobacter'' and is tested for using the Voges–Proskauer (VP) test. There are other alternative strains that can be used, talked about in details in the Alternative Bacteria Strains section below. The metabolic function of 2,3-butanediol is not known, although some have speculated that it was an evolutionary advantage for these microorganisms to produce a neutral product that's less inhibitory than other partial oxidation products and doesn't reduce the pH as much as mixed acids. There are many important industrial applications that butanediol can be used for, including antifreeze, food additives, antiseptic, and pharmaceuticals. It also is produced naturally in various places of the en ...
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2,3-Butanediol
2,3-Butanediol is the organic compound with the formula (CH3CHOH)2. It is classified as a ''vic''-diol ( glycol). It exists as three stereoisomers, a chiral pair and the meso isomer. All are colorless liquids. Applications include precursors to various plastics and pesticides. Isomerism Of the three stereoisomers, two are enantiomers (levo- and dextro-2,3-butanediol) and one is a meso compound. The enantiomeric pair have (2''R'', 3''R'') and (2''S'', 3''S'') configurations at carbons 2 and 3, while the meso compound has configuration (2''R'', 3''S'') or, equivalently, (2''S'', 3''R''). Industrial production and uses 2,3-Butanediol is prepared by hydrolysis of 2,3-epoxybutane:Heinz Gräfje, Wolfgang Körnig, Hans-Martin Weitz, Wolfgang Reiß, Guido Steffan, Herbert Diehl, Horst Bosche, Kurt Schneider and Heinz Kieczka "Butanediols, Butenediol, and Butynediol" in ''Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry'', 2000, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. :(CH3CH)2O + H2O → CH3(CHO ...
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Geobacillus
''Geobacillus'' is a bacterial genus from the family of Bacillaceae The Bacillaceae are a family of gram-positive, heterotrophic, rod-shaped bacteria that may produce endospores. Motile members of this family are characterized by peritrichous flagella. Some Bacillaceae are aerobic, while others are facultative o .... References Further reading * * * * * Bacillaceae Bacteria genera {{Firmicutes-stub ...
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Diacetyl
Diacetyl (IUPAC systematic name: butanedione or butane-2,3-dione) is an organic compound with the chemical formula (CH3CO)2. It is a yellow liquid with an intensely buttery flavor. It is a vicinal diketone (two C=O groups, side-by-side). Diacetyl occurs naturally in alcoholic beverages and is added as a flavoring to some foods to impart its buttery flavor. Chemical structure A distinctive feature of diacetyl (and other vicinal diketones) is the long C–C bond linking the carbonyl centers. This bond distance is about 1.54 Å, compared to 1.45 Å for the corresponding C–C bond in 1,3-butadiene. The elongation is attributed to repulsion between the polarized carbonyl carbon centers. Occurrence and biosynthesis Diacetyl arises naturally as a byproduct of fermentation. In some fermentative bacteria, it is formed via the thiamine pyrophosphate-mediated condensation of pyruvate and acetyl CoA. Sour (cultured) cream, cultured buttermilk, and cultured butter are produced b ...
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Dehydrogenation
In chemistry, dehydrogenation is a chemical reaction that involves the removal of hydrogen, usually from an organic molecule. It is the reverse of hydrogenation. Dehydrogenation is important, both as a useful reaction and a serious problem. At its simplest, it is useful way of converting alkanes, which are relatively inert and thus low-valued, to olefins, which are reactive and thus more valuable. Alkenes are precursors to aldehydes (), alcohols (), polymers, and aromatics. As a problematic reaction, the fouling and inactivation of many catalysts arises via coking, which is the dehydrogenative polymerization of organic substrates. Enzymes that catalyze dehydrogenation are called dehydrogenases. Heterogeneous catalytic routes Styrene Dehydrogenation processes are used extensively to produce aromatics in the petrochemical industry. Such processes are highly endothermic and require temperatures of 500 °C and above. Dehydrogenation also converts saturated fats to unsa ...
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Dihydrogen
Hydrogen is the chemical element with the symbol H and atomic number 1. Hydrogen is the lightest element. At standard conditions hydrogen is a gas of diatomic molecules having the formula . It is colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, and highly combustible. Hydrogen is the most abundant chemical substance in the universe, constituting roughly 75% of all normal matter.However, most of the universe's mass is not in the form of baryons or chemical elements. See dark matter and dark energy. Stars such as the Sun are mainly composed of hydrogen in the plasma state. Most of the hydrogen on Earth exists in molecular forms such as water and organic compounds. For the most common isotope of hydrogen (symbol 1H) each atom has one proton, one electron, and no neutrons. In the early universe, the formation of protons, the nuclei of hydrogen, occurred during the first second after the Big Bang. The emergence of neutral hydrogen atoms throughout the universe occurred abo ...
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Ethanol
Ethanol (abbr. EtOH; also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol) is an organic compound. It is an alcohol with the chemical formula . Its formula can be also written as or (an ethyl group linked to a hydroxyl group). Ethanol is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid with a characteristic wine-like odor and pungent taste. It is a psychoactive recreational drug, the active ingredient in alcoholic drinks. Ethanol is naturally produced by the fermentation process of sugars by yeasts or via petrochemical processes such as ethylene hydration. It has medical applications as an antiseptic and disinfectant. It is used as a chemical solvent and in the synthesis of organic compounds, and as a fuel source. Ethanol also can be dehydrated to make ethylene, an important chemical feedstock. As of 2006, world production of ethanol was , coming mostly from Brazil and the U.S. Etymology ''Ethanol'' is the systematic name defined by the ...
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Mixed Acid Fermentation
In biochemistry, mixed acid fermentation is the metabolic process by which a six-carbon sugar (e.g. glucose, ) is converted into a complex and variable mixture of acids. It is an anaerobic (non-oxygen-requiring) fermentation reaction that is common in bacteria. It is characteristic for members of the Enterobacteriaceae, a large family of Gram-negative bacteria that includes '' E. coli''. The mixture of end products produced by mixed acid fermentation includes lactate, acetate, succinate, formate, ethanol and the gases and . The formation of these end products depends on the presence of certain key enzymes in the bacterium. The proportion in which they are formed varies between different bacterial species. The mixed acid fermentation pathway differs from other fermentation pathways, which produce fewer end products in fixed amounts. The end products of mixed acid fermentation can have many useful applications in biotechnology and industry. For instance, ethanol is widely ...
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Enterobacter
''Enterobacter'' is a genus of common Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae. It is the type genus of the order Enterobacterales. Several strains of these bacteria are pathogenic and cause opportunistic infections in immunocompromised (usually hospitalized) hosts and in those who are on mechanical ventilation. The urinary and respiratory tracts are the most common sites of infection. The genus ''Enterobacter'' is a member of the coliform group of bacteria. It does not belong to the fecal coliforms (or thermotolerant coliforms) group of bacteria, unlike ''Escherichia coli'', because it is incapable of growth at 44.5 °C in the presence of bile salts. Some of them show quorum sensing properties. One clinically important species from this genus is '' E. cloacae''. Researchers in 2018 reported, after detecting the presence on the International Space Station (ISS) of five '' Enterobacter bugan ...
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Anaerobic
Anaerobic means "living, active, occurring, or existing in the absence of free oxygen", as opposed to aerobic which means "living, active, or occurring only in the presence of oxygen." Anaerobic may also refer to: * Anaerobic adhesive, a bonding agent that does not cure in the presence of air *Anaerobic respiration, respiration in the absence of oxygen, using some other molecule as the final electron acceptor **Anaerobic organism, any organism whose redox metabolism does not depend on free oxygen **Anammox, anaerobic ammonium oxidation, a globally important microbial process of the nitrogen cycle ** Anaerobic filter, an anaerobic digester with a tank containing a filter medium where anaerobic microbes can establish themselves **Anaerobic digestion, the use of anaerobic bacteria to break down waste, with biogas as a byproduct *** Anaerobic clarigester, an anaerobic digester that treats dilute biodegradable feedstocks and allows different retention times for solids and liquids *** An ...
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Klebsiella
''Klebsiella'' is a genus of Gram-negative, oxidase-negative, rod-shaped bacteria with a prominent polysaccharide-based capsule. ''Klebsiella'' species are found everywhere in nature. This is thought to be due to distinct sublineages developing specific niche adaptations, with associated biochemical adaptations which make them better suited to a particular environment. They can be found in water, soil, plants, insects and other animals including humans. ''Klebsiella'' is named after German-Swiss microbiologist Edwin Klebs (1834–1913). Carl Friedlander described ''Klebsiella'' bacillus which is why it was termed Friedlander bacillus for many years. The members of the genus ''Klebsiella'' are a part of the human and animal's normal flora in the nose, mouth and intestines. The species of ''Klebsiella'' are all gram-negative and usually non-motile. They tend to be shorter and thicker when compared to others in the family Enterobacteriaceae. The cells are rods in shape and ge ...
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