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Building Regulations In The United Kingdom
Building regulations in the United Kingdom are statutory instruments or statutory regulations that seek to ensure that the policies set out in the relevant legislation are carried out. Building regulations approval is required for most building work in the UK. Building regulations that apply across England and Wales are set out in the Building Act 1984 while those that apply across Scotland are set out in the Building (Scotland) Act 2003. The Act in England and Wales permits detailed regulations to be made by the Secretary of State. The regulations made under the Act have been periodically updated, rewritten or consolidated, with the latest and current version being the Building Regulations 2010. The UK Government (at Westminster) is responsible for the relevant legislation and administration in England, the Welsh Government (at Cardiff) is the responsible body in Wales, the Scottish Government (at Edinburgh) is responsible for the issue in Scotland, and the Northern Ireland Exe ...
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Statutory Instrument
In many countries, a statutory instrument is a form of delegated legislation. United Kingdom Statutory instruments are the principal form of delegated or secondary legislation in the United Kingdom. National government Statutory instruments (or 'regulations') are primarily governed by the Statutory Instruments Act 1946, which replaced the system of statutory rules and orders governed by the Rules Publication Act 1893. Following the 2016 EU membership referendum and the subsequent publication of the European Union (Withdrawal) Bill, there has been concern that its powers enabling ministers to issue statutory instruments under the bill may enable the government to bypass Parliament. Although this has been criticised by some as being undemocratic, draft regulations must be "laid before" Parliament, which may always demand a full debate on contentious issues.
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Grenfell Tower Fire
On 14 June 2017, a high-rise fire broke out in the 24-storey Grenfell Tower block of flats in North Kensington, West London, at 00:54 BST and burned for 60 hours. 72 people died, two later in hospital, with more than 70 injured and 223 escaping. It was the deadliest structural fire in the United Kingdom since the 1988 '' Piper Alpha'' oil-platform disaster and the worst UK residential fire since World War II. The fire was started by an electrical fault in a refrigerator on the fourth floor. This spread rapidly up the building's exterior, bringing flame and smoke to all residential floors, accelerated by dangerously combustible aluminium composite cladding and external insulation, with an air gap between them enabling the stack effect. The fire was declared a major incident with more than 250 London Fire Brigade firefighters and 70 fire engines from stations across London involved in efforts to control the fire and rescue residents. More than 100 London Ambulance Serv ...
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Insulating Materials
This is a list of insulation materials used around the world. Typical R-values are given for various materials and structures as approximations based on the average of available figures and are sorted by lowest value.'' R-value at 1 n'' gives R-values normalised to a thickness and sorts by median In statistics and probability theory, the median is the value separating the higher half from the lower half of a data sample, a population, or a probability distribution. For a data set, it may be thought of as "the middle" value. The basic f ... value of the range. References {{Reflist Building insulation materials ...
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Redrow Plc
Redrow plc is one of the largest British housebuilders with a network of 14 operational divisions across the UK. It is based in Flintshire, Wales and employs 2,300 people. It is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is currently a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index. History Steve Morgan had been working as a site agent for Wellington Civil Engineering when, in 1974, the parent company decided it was to be closed. Morgan offered to take over the contract, borrowed £5,000 from his father, and completed the contract at a profit. Further work was carried out for Wellington and, still aged only 21, Morgan registered his new company – Redrow.Burland and Whitehouse, The Redrow Way (1999) Redrow gradually expanded through small civil engineering work and, with Simon Macbryde, formed a separate building company; these were later merged to leave Macbryde with 17 percent of the enlarged company. Geographically, Redrow moved from its north Wales base into Cheshire and in the early 198 ...
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Barratt Developments
Barratt Developments plc is one of the largest residential property development companies in the United Kingdom operating across England, Wales and Scotland. It was founded in 1958 as Greensitt Bros., but control was later assumed by Sir Lawrie Barratt. It was originally based in Newcastle upon Tyne but is now located at David Wilson's former offices in Coalville, Leicestershire. It has been listed on the London Stock Exchange since 1968, and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. History In 1953, Lawrie Barratt, an accountant who was frustrated at the high purchase prices of houses for first-time buyers, bought five acres of land at Darras Hall, near Newcastle upon Tyne and built his own home on the site. Following this experience, he joined forces with Lewis Greensitt, a Newcastle builder, to establish a house building business, which was initially known as Greensitt Brothers, in 1958. The company was floated on the Stock Exchange in 1968 as Greensitt & Barratt b ...
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2017–18 European Windstorm Season
The 2017–2018 European windstorm season was the third instance of seasonal European windstorm naming. France, Spain and Portugal took part in winter storm naming for the first time this season. The season started on 12 September 2017 with the formation of Storm Aileen. It was subsequently marked by many high-impact storms which caused severe loss of life and widespread damage, including Ophelia, Eleanor, David and Emma. The season concluded on 17 June 2018 with the dissipation of off-season Storm Hector. Background and naming In 2015, the Met Office and Met Éireann announced a pilot project to name storm warnings as part of the ''Name our Storms'' project for wind storms and asked the public for suggestions. The meteorological offices produced a full list of names for 2015–16 and 2016–17, common to both the UK and Ireland. A new list of names was released on 6 September 2017 for the 2017–18 season. Names in the UK will be based on the National Severe Weather Warni ...
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Housing Association
In Ireland and the United Kingdom, housing associations are private, non-profit making organisations that provide low-cost " social housing" for people in need of a home. Any budget surplus is used to maintain existing housing and to help finance new homes and it cannot be used for personal benefit of directors or shareholders. Although independent, they are regulated by the state and commonly receive public funding. They are now the United Kingdom's major providers of new housing for rent, while many also run shared ownership schemes to help those who cannot afford to buy a home outright. Housing associations provide a wide range of housing, some managing large estates of housing for families, while the smallest may perhaps manage a single scheme of housing for older people. Much of the supported accommodation in the UK is also provided by housing associations, with specialist projects for people with mental health issues or learning disabilities, with substance misuse pr ...
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Public Housing In The United Kingdom
Public housing in the United Kingdom, also known as council estates, council housing, or social housing, provided the majority of rented accommodation until 2011 when the number of households in private rental housing surpassed the number in social housing. Houses and flats built for public or social housing use are built by or for local authorities and known as council houses, though since the 1980s the role of non-profit housing associations became more important and subsequently the term "social housing" became more widely used, as technically council housing only refers to housing owned by a local authority, though the terms are largely used interchangeably. Before 1865, housing for the poor was provided solely by the private sector. Council houses were built on council estates, known as schemes in Scotland, where other amenities, like schools and shops, were often also provided. From the 1950s, blocks of flats and three-or-four-storey blocks of maisonettes were widely built ...
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Tower Block With Cladding Exposed In Sheffield 2017
A tower is a tall structure, taller than it is wide, often by a significant factor. Towers are distinguished from masts by their lack of guy-wires and are therefore, along with tall buildings, self-supporting structures. Towers are specifically distinguished from buildings in that they are built not to be habitable but to serve other functions using the height of the tower. For example, the height of a clock tower improves the visibility of the clock, and the height of a tower in a fortified building such as a castle increases the visibility of the surroundings for defensive purposes. Towers may also be built for observation, leisure, or telecommunication purposes. A tower can stand alone or be supported by adjacent buildings, or it may be a feature on top of a larger structure or building. Etymology Old English ''torr'' is from Latin ''turris'' via Old French ''tor''. The Latin term together with Greek τύρσις was loaned from a pre-Indo-European Mediterranean language, ...
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Fire Authority
In England and Wales a fire authority or fire and rescue authority is a statutory body made up of a committee of local councillors which oversees the policy and service delivery of a fire and rescue service. Prior to the Fire Services Act 2004 many fire and rescue authorities were known as fire and civil defence authorities; this designation is no longer used. A combined fire authority (CFA) is one created by a statutory instrument to cover more than one local authority area. Usually each of the constituent local authorities appoints a fixed number of members of the CFA, depending on their relative populations. Constitution A fire authority is made up of either councillors, officers or representatives from the local principal councils in the geographical area that the fire service operates. In the case of the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority, there is an additional layer of governance above in the form of the London Assembly. The responsible central government depar ...
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Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005
The Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 (officially listed as ''The Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 S.I. 2005 No. 1541'') is a statutory instrument applicable in England and Wales. The Order places the responsibility on individuals within an organisation to carry out risk assessments to identify, manage and reduce the risk of fire. The Order was made into law on 7 June 2005 and came into force on 1 October 2006. Guidance for businesses is available in the form of 16 government-published documents, with general guidance, a 5-Step Checklist and 12 documents pertaining specifically to a particular type of business premises. On 5 January 2016, responsibility for fire and rescue policy transferred from the Department for Communities and Local Government to the Home Office, who then became responsible for the guidance. The guidance does not normally apply to domestic premises. Prior to the Order, under the Fire Precautions Act 1971, all public and commercial buildings, ...
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Fire Protection Engineering
Fire protection engineering is the application of science and engineering principles to protect people, property, and their environments from the harmful and destructive effects of fire and smoke. It encompasses engineering which focuses on fire detection, suppression and mitigation and fire safety engineering which focuses on human behavior and maintaining a tenable environment for evacuation from a fire. In the United States 'fire protection engineering' is often used to include 'fire safety engineering'. The discipline of fire engineering includes, but is not exclusive to: * Fire detection - fire alarm systems and brigade call systems * Active fire protection - fire suppression systems * Passive fire protection - fire and smoke barriers, space separation * Smoke control and management * Escape facilities - emergency exits, fire lifts, etc. * Building design, layout, and space planning * Fire prevention programs * Fire dynamics and fire modeling * Human behavior during fire ...
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