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Bourgeois Of Paris
A bourgeois of Paris was traditionally a member of one of the corporations or guilds that existed under the Ancien Régime. According to Article 173 of the Custom of Paris, a bourgeois had to possess a domicile in Paris as a tenant or owner for at least a year and a day. This qualification was also required for public offices such as provost of the merchants, alderman or consul, but unlike the bourgeois or citizens of other free cities, Parisians did not need letters of bourgeoisie to prove their status. A bourgeois of Paris had privileges as well as duties. While they were exempt from paying the taille, they were required to pay the city taxes, contribute to a public charity, arm themselves at their own expense, and join the urban militia. Definition According to article 173 (previously 129) of the Custom of Paris, the "right of the Bourgeoisie" can be attained in Paris by any person "living and residing there for a year and a day." "Living and residing" meant having a ...
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Edit De Louis XI Confirmant Les Privilèges Des Bourgeois De Paris
Edit may refer to: Concepts * an action that is part of an editing process (including Image editing, of images, Video editing, video, and Film editing, film) * a particular version that is the result of editing, especially of film (for example, fan edit), or music (for example, radio edit) * a film transition, also known as a "Cut (transition), cut" * a change to a computer file * a change in the genome introduced via Gene editing (other), gene editing, or in the epigenome via epigenome editing * ''edit.'', an abbreviation of "Edition (other), edition" Music * edIT, American electronic DJ and producer * Edit (album), ''Edit'' (album), a 2008 album by Mark Stewart * "Edit", a song by Regina Spektor from the 2006 album ''Begin to Hope'' Other uses * Edit (given name), a list of people and fictional characters * Equitas Development Initiatives Trust (EDIT), established by the Equitas Small Finance Bank in India * Edit (application), ''Edit'' (application), a s ...
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Militia
A militia () is generally an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a country, or subjects of a state, who may perform military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel; or, historically, to members of a warrior-nobility class (e.g. knights or samurai). Generally unable to hold ground against regular forces, militias commonly support regular troops by skirmishing, holding fortifications, or conducting irregular warfare, instead of undertaking offensive campaigns by themselves. Local civilian laws often limit militias to serve only in their home region, and to serve only for a limited time; this further reduces their use in long military campaigns. Beginning in the late 20th century, some militias (in particular officially recognized and sanctioned militias of a government) act as professional forces, while still being "part-time" or "on-call" organizations. For instanc ...
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Poissy
Poissy () is a commune in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France. It is located in the western suburbs of Paris, from the centre of Paris. Inhabitants are called ''Pisciacais'' in French. Poissy is one of the oldest royal cities of Île-de-France, birthplace of Louis IX of France and Philip III of France, before being supplanted from the 15th century by Saint-Germain-en-Laye. In 1561 it was the site of a fruitless Catholic-Huguenot conference, the Colloquy of Poissy. It is known for hosting the Automobiles Gregoire successively, Matford, Ford SAF, Simca, Chrysler, Talbot factories and now hosts one of France's largest Peugeot factories. The " Simca Poissy engine" was made here. Poissy is the 165th most populated city in Metropolitan France. Location Poissy is located about 30 kilometers west of Paris, in the northeastern part of the Yvelines, 8 kilometers west of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, and 23 kilometers northwest of Vers ...
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Versailles, Yvelines
Versailles () is a commune in the department of the Yvelines, Île-de-France, renowned worldwide for the Château de Versailles and the gardens of Versailles, designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Located in the western suburbs of the French capital, from the centre of Paris, Versailles is a wealthy suburb of Paris with a service-based economy and is a major tourist destination. According to the 2017 census, the population of the city is 85,862 inhabitants, down from a peak of 94,145 in 1975.Population en historique depuis 1968
INSEE
A founded at the will of King

Taille
The ''taille'' () was a direct land tax on the French peasantry and non-nobles in ''Ancien Régime'' France. The tax was imposed on each household and was based on how much land it held, and was directly paid to the state. History Originally only an "exceptional" tax (i.e. imposed and collected in times of need, as the king was expected to survive on the revenues of the " domaine royal", or lands that belonged to him directly), the ''taille'' became permanent in 1439, when the right to collect taxes in support of a standing army was granted to Charles VII of France during the Hundred Years' War. Unlike modern income taxes, the total amount of the ''taille'' was first set (after the Estates General was suspended in 1484) by the French king from year to year, and this amount was then apportioned among the various provinces for collection. Exempted from the tax were clergy and nobles (except for non-noble lands they held in "pays d'état" ee below, officers of the crown, milita ...
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Estates General Of 1789
The Estates General of 1789 was a general assembly representing the French estates of the realm: the clergy (First Estate), the nobility (Second Estate), and the commoners (Third Estate). It was the last of the Estates General of the Kingdom of France. Summoned by King Louis XVI, the Estates General of 1789 ended when the Third Estate formed the National Assembly and, against the wishes of the King, invited the other two estates to join. This signaled the outbreak of the French Revolution. The decision to summon the Estates First Assembly of Notables and peasants The suggestion to summon the Estates General came from the Assembly of Notables installed by the King on 22 February 1787. This institution had not been called since 1614. In 1787, the Parlement of Paris was refusing to ratify Charles Alexandre de Calonne's program of badly needed financial reform, due to the special interests of its noble members. Calonne was the Controller-General of Finances, appointed by th ...
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Ius In Re
Ius in re, or jus in re, under civil law, more commonly referred to as a real right or right '' in rem'', is a right in property, known as an interest under common law. A real right vests in a person with respect to property, inherent in his relation to it, and is good against the world (''erga omnes''). The primary real right is ownership (''dominium'') (freehold, leasehold, commonhold). Whether possession (''possessio'') is recognized as a real right, or merely as a source of certain powers and actions, depends on the legal system at hand. Subordinate or limited real rights generally refer to encumbrances, rights of use and security interests. The term right '' in rem'' is derived from the action given to its holder, an actio in rem. In Latin grammar the action against the thing demands a fourth case. The underlying right itself, ius in re, has a fifth case, as the right rests on, or burdens, the thing. By mistake the common law terminology now uses the fourth case for describing ...
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Defense (legal)
In a civil proceeding or criminal prosecution under the common law or under statute, a defendant may raise a defense (or defence) in an effort to avert civil liability or criminal conviction. A defense is put forward by a party to defeat a suit or action brought against the party, and may be based on legal grounds or on factual claims. Besides contesting the accuracy of an allegation made against the defendant in the proceeding, the defendant may also make allegations against the prosecutor or plaintiff or raise a defense, arguing that, even if the allegations against the defendant are true, the defendant is nevertheless not liable. Acceptance of a defense by the court completely exonerates the defendant and not merely mitigates the liability. The defense phase of a trial occurs after the prosecution phase, that is, after the prosecution "rests". Other parts of the defense include the opening and closing arguments and the cross-examination during the prosecution pha ...
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Pleading
In law as practiced in countries that follow the English models, a pleading is a formal written statement of a party's claims or defenses to another party's claims in a civil action. The parties' pleadings in a case define the issues to be adjudicated in the action. The Civil Procedure Rules (CPR) govern pleading in England and Wales. Federal Rules of Civil Procedure govern pleading in United States federal courts. Each state in the United States has its own statutes and rules that govern pleading in the courts of that state. Examples Pleading in early American law was done through common law writs (for example '' demurrer''). Under the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure a '' complaint'' is the first pleading in American law filed by a plaintiff which initiates a lawsuit. A complaint sets forth the relevant allegations of fact that give rise to one or more legal causes of action along with a prayer for relief and sometimes a statement of damages claimed (an ad quod damnu ...
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List Of French Monarchs
France was ruled by monarchs from the establishment of the Kingdom of West Francia in 843 until the end of the Second French Empire in 1870, with several interruptions. Classical French historiography usually regards Clovis I () as the first king of France, however historians today consider that such a kingdom did not begin until the establishment of West Francia. Titles The kings used the title "King of the Franks" ( la, Rex Francorum) until the late twelfth century; the first to adopt the title of "King of France" (Latin: ''Rex Franciae''; French: ''roi de France'') was Philip II in 1190 (r. 1180–1223), after which the title "King of the Franks" gradually lost ground. However, ''Francorum Rex'' continued to be sometimes used, for example by Louis XII in 1499, by Francis I in 1515, and by Henry II in about 1550; it was also used on coins up to the eighteenth century. During the brief period when the French Constitution of 1791 was in effect (1791–1792) and a ...
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Polymorphous
Polymorphism, polymorphic, polymorph, polymorphous, or polymorphy may refer to: Computing * Polymorphism (computer science), the ability in programming to present the same programming interface for differing underlying forms * Ad hoc polymorphism, applying polymorphic functions to arguments of different types * Parametric polymorphism, abstracts types, so that multiple can be used with a single implementation ** Bounded quantification, restricts type parameters to a range of subtypes * Subtyping, different classes related by some common superclass can be used in place of that superclass * Row polymorphism, uses structural subtyping to allow polymorphism over records * Polymorphic code, self-modifying program code designed to defeat anti-virus programs or reverse engineering Science Biology * Chromosomal polymorphism, a condition where one species contains members with varying chromosome counts or shapes * Cell polymorphism, variability in size of cells or nuclei * Gene polymor ...
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