Airfoil
An airfoil (American English) or aerofoil (British English) is the crosssectional shape of an object whose motion through a gas is capable of generating significant lift, such as a wing, a sail, or the blades of propeller, rotor, or turbine. A solid body moving through a fluid produces an aerodynamic force. The component of this force perpendicular to the relative freestream velocity is called lift. The component parallel to the relative freestream velocity is called drag. An airfoil is a streamlined shape that is capable of generating significantly more lift than drag. Airfoils can be designed for use at different speeds by modifying their geometry: those for subsonic flight generally have a rounded leading edge, while those designed for supersonic flight tend to be slimmer with a sharp leading edge. All have a sharp trailing edge. Foils of similar function designed with water as the working fluid are called hydrofoils. The lift on an airfoil is primarily the result of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Lift (force)
A fluid flowing around an object exerts a force on it. Lift is the component of this force that is perpendicular to the oncoming flow direction. It contrasts with the drag force, which is the component of the force parallel to the flow direction. Lift conventionally acts in an upward direction in order to counter the force of gravity, but it can act in any direction at right angles to the flow. If the surrounding fluid is air, the force is called an aerodynamic force. In water or any other liquid, it is called a hydrodynamic force. Dynamic lift is distinguished from other kinds of lift in fluids. Aerostatic lift or buoyancy, in which an internal fluid is lighter than the surrounding fluid, does not require movement and is used by balloons, blimps, dirigibles, boats, and submarines. Planing lift, in which only the lower portion of the body is immersed in a liquid flow, is used by motorboats, surfboards, windsurfers, sailboats, and waterskis. Overview A fluid flowing around ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Kutta–Joukowski Theorem
The Kutta–Joukowski theorem is a fundamental theorem in aerodynamics used for the calculation of lift of an airfoil (and any twodimensional body including circular cylinders) translating in a uniform fluid at a constant speed large enough so that the flow seen in the bodyfixed frame is steady and unseparated. The theorem relates the lift generated by an airfoil to the speed of the airfoil through the fluid, the density of the fluid and the circulation around the airfoil. The circulation is defined as the line integral around a closed loop enclosing the airfoil of the component of the velocity of the fluid tangent to the loop. It is named after Martin Kutta and Nikolai Zhukovsky (or Joukowski) who first developed its key ideas in the early 20th century. Kutta–Joukowski theorem is an inviscid theory, but it is a good approximation for real viscous flow in typical aerodynamic applications. Kutta–Joukowski theorem relates lift to circulation much like the Magnus effect ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Camber (aerodynamics)
In aeronautics and aeronautical engineering, camber is the asymmetry between the two acting surfaces of an airfoil, with the top surface of a wing (or correspondingly the front surface of a propeller blade) commonly being more convex (positive camber). An airfoil that is not cambered is called a ''symmetric airfoil''. The benefits of cambering were discovered and first utilized by George Cayley in the early 19th century. Overview Camber is usually designed into an airfoil to maximize its lift coefficient. This minimizes the stalling speed of aircraft using the airfoil. An aircraft with cambered wings will have a lower stalling speed than an aircraft with a similar wing loading and symmetric airfoil wings. An aircraft designer may also reduce the angle of attack of the outboard section of the wings. This ensures that, as the aircraft approaches the stall, the wing root stalls before the tip, giving the aircraft resistance to spinning and maintaining aileron effectiveness close ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Wing
A wing is a type of fin that produces lift while moving through air or some other fluid. Accordingly, wings have streamlined crosssections that are subject to aerodynamic forces and act as airfoils. A wing's aerodynamic efficiency is expressed as its lifttodrag ratio. The lift a wing generates at a given speed and angle of attack can be one to two orders of magnitude greater than the total drag on the wing. A high lifttodrag ratio requires a significantly smaller thrust to propel the wings through the air at sufficient lift. Lifting structures used in water include various foils, such as hydrofoils. Hydrodynamics is the governing science, rather than aerodynamics. Applications of underwater foils occur in hydroplanes, sailboats and submarines. Etymology and usage For many centuries, the word "wing", from the Old Norse ''vængr'', referred mainly to the foremost limbs of birds (in addition to the architectural aisle). But in recent centuries the word's meaning has e ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Bernoulli's Principle
In fluid dynamics, Bernoulli's principle states that an increase in the speed of a fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in static pressure or a decrease in the fluid's potential energy. The principle is named after the Swiss mathematician and physicist Daniel Bernoulli, who published it in his book '' Hydrodynamica'' in 1738. Although Bernoulli deduced that pressure decreases when the flow speed increases, it was Leonhard Euler in 1752 who derived Bernoulli's equation in its usual form. The principle is only applicable for isentropic flows: when the effects of irreversible processes (like turbulence) and non adiabatic processes (e.g. thermal radiation) are small and can be neglected. Bernoulli's principle can be applied to various types of fluid flow, resulting in various forms of Bernoulli's equation. The simple form of Bernoulli's equation is valid for incompressible flows (e.g. most liquid flows and gases moving at low Mach number). More advanced forms may be appli ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Angle Of Attack
In fluid dynamics, angle of attack (AOA, α, or \alpha) is the angle between a reference line on a body (often the chord line of an airfoil) and the vector representing the relative motion between the body and the fluid through which it is moving. Angle of attack is the angle between the body's reference line and the oncoming flow. This article focuses on the most common application, the angle of attack of a wing or airfoil moving through air. In aerodynamics, angle of attack specifies the angle between the chord line of the wing of a fixedwing aircraft and the vector representing the relative motion between the aircraft and the atmosphere. Since a wing can have twist, a chord line of the whole wing may not be definable, so an alternate reference line is simply defined. Often, the chord line of the root of the wing is chosen as the reference line. Another choice is to use a horizontal line on the fuselage as the reference line (and also as the longitudinal axis). Some auth ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Sail
A sail is a tensile structure—which is made from fabric or other membrane materials—that uses wind power to propel sailing craft, including sailing ships, sailboats, windsurfers, ice boats, and even sailpowered land vehicles. Sails may be made from a combination of woven materials—including canvas or polyester cloth, laminated membranes or bonded filaments—usually in a three or foursided shape. A sail provides propulsive force via a combination of lift and drag, depending on its angle of attack—its angle with respect to the apparent wind. Apparent wind is the air velocity experienced on the moving craft and is the combined effect of the true wind velocity with the velocity of the sailing craft. Angle of attack is often constrained by the sailing craft's orientation to the wind or point of sail. On points of sail where it is possible to align the leading edge of the sail with the apparent wind, the sail may act as an airfoil, generating propulsive force as air ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Circulation (fluid Dynamics)
In physics, circulation is the line integral of a vector field around a closed curve. In fluid dynamics, the field is the fluid velocity field. In electrodynamics, it can be the electric or the magnetic field. Circulation was first used independently by Frederick Lanchester, Martin Kutta and Nikolay Zhukovsky. It is usually denoted Γ (Greek uppercase gamma). Definition and properties If V is a vector field and dl is a vector representing the differential length of a small element of a defined curve, the contribution of that differential length to circulation is dΓ: :\mathrm\Gamma=\mathbf\cdot \mathrm\mathbf=, \mathbf, , \mathrm\mathbf, \cos \theta. Here, ''θ'' is the angle between the vectors V and dl. The circulation Γ of a vector field V around a closed curve ''C'' is the line integral: :\Gamma=\oint_\mathbf\cdot \mathrm d \mathbf. In a conservative vector field this integral evaluates to zero for every closed curve. That means that a line integral between any two ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Potential Flow
In fluid dynamics, potential flow (or ideal flow) describes the velocity field as the gradient of a scalar function: the velocity potential. As a result, a potential flow is characterized by an irrotational velocity field, which is a valid approximation for several applications. The irrotationality of a potential flow is due to the curl of the gradient of a scalar always being equal to zero. In the case of an incompressible flow the velocity potential satisfies Laplace's equation, and potential theory is applicable. However, potential flows also have been used to describe compressible flows. The potential flow approach occurs in the modeling of both stationary as well as nonstationary flows. Applications of potential flow are for instance: the outer flow field for aerofoils, water waves, electroosmotic flow, and groundwater flow. For flows (or parts thereof) with strong vorticity effects, the potential flow approximation is not applicable. Characteristics and applications ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Propeller (aeronautics)
An aircraft propeller, also called an airscrew,Beaumont, R.A.; ''Aeronautical Engineering'', Odhams, 1942, Chapter 13, "Airscrews". converts rotary motion from an engine or other power source into a swirling slipstream which pushes the propeller forwards or backwards. It comprises a rotating powerdriven hub, to which are attached several radial airfoilsection blades such that the whole assembly rotates about a longitudinal axis. The blade pitch may be fixed, manually variable to a few set positions, or of the automatically variable "constantspeed" type. The propeller attaches to the power source's driveshaft either directly or through reduction gearing. Propellers can be made from wood, metal or composite materials. Propellers are most suitable for use at subsonic airspeeds generally below about , although supersonic speeds were achieved in the McDonnell XF88B experimental propellerequipped aircraft. Supersonic tipspeeds are used in some aircraft like the Tupolev Tu95, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Fixedwing Aircraft
A fixedwing aircraft is a heavierthanair flying machine, such as an airplane, which is capable of flight using wings that generate lift caused by the aircraft's forward airspeed and the shape of the wings. Fixedwing aircraft are distinct from rotarywing aircraft (in which the wings form a rotor mounted on a spinning shaft or "mast"), and ornithopters (in which the wings flap in a manner similar to that of a bird). The wings of a fixedwing aircraft are not necessarily rigid; kites, hang gliders, variablesweep wing aircraft and airplanes that use wing morphing are all examples of fixedwing aircraft. Gliding fixedwing aircraft, including freeflying gliders of various kinds and tethered kites, can use moving air to gain altitude. Powered fixedwing aircraft (airplanes) that gain forward thrust from an engine include powered paragliders, powered hang gliders and some ground effect vehicles. Most fixedwing aircraft are flown by a pilot on board the craft, but some ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Foil (fluid Mechanics)
A foil is a solid object with a shape such that when placed in a moving fluid at a suitable angle of attack the lift (force generated perpendicular to the fluid flow) is substantially larger than the drag (force generated parallel to the fluid flow). If the fluid is a gas, the foil is called an airfoil or aerofoil, and if the fluid is water the foil is called a hydrofoil. Physics of foils A foil generates lift primarily because of its shape and angle of attack. When oriented at a suitable angle, the foil deflects the oncoming fluid, resulting in a force on the foil in the direction opposite to the deflection. This force can be resolved into two components: lift and drag. This "turning" of the fluid in the vicinity of the foil creates curved streamlines which results in lower pressure on one side and higher pressure on the other. This pressure difference is accompanied by a velocity difference, via Bernoulli's principle, so for foils with positive anglesof attack, and other t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 