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1848 Revolution
The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Springtime of the Peoples or the Springtime of Nations, were a series of political upheaval A political revolution, in the Trotskyist Trotskyism is the political ideology and branch of Marxism developed by Russian revolutionary Leon Trotsky. Trotsky self-identified as an Orthodox Marxism, orthodox Marxist and Bolsheviks, Bolshevik–L ...s throughout Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continents. Ordered ... in 1848. It remains the most widespread revolutionary wave A revolutionary wave or revolutionary decade is one series of revolution In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics. It is a social science dealing with systems of governance and power, and the analysis of pol ... in Eur ...
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Barricade
Barricade (from the French ''barrique Oak is used in winemaking to vary the color, flavor, tannins (wine), tannin profile and texture of wine. It can be introduced in the form of a barrel during the fermentation (wine), fermentation or aging barrel, aging periods, or as free-floating c ...'' - 'barrel') is any object or structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A ... that creates a barrier or obstacle to control, block passage or force the flow of traffic Traffic on roads A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places that has been paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or by some form of conveyance (including a motor vehicle Electric bicycles parked i ... in the desired direction. Adopted as a military term, a barr ...
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Horace Vernet
Émile Jean-Horace Vernet (30 June 178917 January 1863), more commonly known as simply Horace Vernet, was a French painter Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, or solid mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts to a solid film. It is most commonly used to protect, ... of battles, portraits, and Orientalist Orientalist may refer to: *A scholar of Oriental studies *A person or thing relating to the Western intellectual or artistic paradigm known as Orientalism (as in 'an Orientalist painting' or '-painter') *''The Orientalist'', a biography of author L ... subjects. Biography Vernet was born to Carle Vernet, another famous painter, who was himself a son of Claude Joseph Vernet Claude-Joseph Vernet (14 August 17143 December 1789) was a French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the Fren ...
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Age Of Revolution
The Age of Revolution is a period from the late 18th to the mid-19th centuries in which a number of significant revolution In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, suc ...ary movements occurred in most of Europe and the Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North America, North and South America. The Americas make up most of the land in Earth's Western Hemisphere and comprise the New World. Along with th .... The period is noted for the change from absolutist monarchies to representative governments with a written constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or rul ...
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Cormac Ó Gráda
Cormac Ó Gráda (born 1945) is an Irish economic historian and professor emeritus of economics at University College Dublin. His research has focused on the economic history of Ireland, Irish demographic changes, the Great Famine (Ireland), Great Irish Famine (as well as other famines), and the history of the Jews in Ireland. Life and career After earning his undergraduate degree at the University College Dublin, Ó Gráda earned his Ph.D. in economics from Columbia University in 1973, where he wrote his dissertation on the Irish economy before and after the Great Famine (Ireland), Great Famine. He described his early academic career as being "a kind of Jack of all trades, master of none, jack-of-all-trades economic historian of Ireland". He credits fellow economist Joel Mokyr, whom he met in 1977 through Michael Edelstein, his graduate thesis advisor at Columbia, as the "greatest influence" his academic work. Mokyr also sharpened his interest in the Great Irish Famine, which "le ...
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European Potato Failure
The European Potato Failure was a food crisis Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies the Life#Biology ... caused by potato blight The potato is a starch Starch or amylum is a polymeric A polymer (; Greek '' poly-'', "many" + '' -mer'', "part") is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attr ... that struck Northern and Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical r ... in the mid-1840s. The time is also known as the Hungry Forties. While the crisis produced excess mortality and suffering ac ...
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Nationalism
Nationalism is an idea and movement that holds that the nation A nation is a community A community is a social unitThe term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target. "Level of analysis" is distinct from the term " unit of observation ... should be congruent with the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un .... As a movement, nationalism tends to promote the interests of a particular nation A nation is a community A community is a social unitThe term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target. "Level of analysis" is distinct from the term " unit of observation ... (as in a group of people In the social scienc ...
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Working Class
The working class (or labouring class) comprises those engaged in manual-labour occupations or industrial work, who are remunerated via waged or salaried contracts. Working-class occupations (see also "Designation of workers by collar color Collar color is a set of terms denoting groups of working individuals based on the colors of their Collar (clothing), collars worn at work. These can commonly reflect one's occupation within a broad class, or sometimes gender; at least in the late 2 ...") include blue-collar A blue-collar worker is a working class The working class (or labouring class) comprises those engaged in manual-labour occupations or industrial work, who are remunerated via waged or salaried contracts. Working-class occupations (see a ... jobs, and most pink-collar jobs. Members of the working class rely exclusively upon earnings from wage labour Wage labour (also wage labor in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), ...
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Freedom Of The Press
Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the principle that communication and expression through various media, including printed and electronic media Media may refer to: Physical means Communication * Media (communication), tools used to deliver information or data ** Advertising media, various media, content, buying and placement for advertising ** Broadcast media, communications deliv ..., especially published materials, should be considered a right to be exercised freely. Such freedom implies the absence of interference from an overreaching state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...; its preservation may be sought through constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a ...
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Participation (decision Making)
Citizen Participation or Public Participation in social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist o ... refers to different mechanisms for the public to express opinions—and ideally exert influence—regarding political, economic, management or other social decisions. Participatory decision-making can take place along any realm of human social activity, including economic An economy (; ) is an area of the production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products ( ... (i.e. participatory economics), political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psycho ...
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French Revolution Of 1848
The 1848 Revolution in the History of France, also known as the February Revolution (''révolution de février''), was the series of revolutionary events that ended the July Monarchy (1830–1848) and led to the creation of the French Second Republic. It was part of a Revolutions of 1848, wave of revolutions in 1848 in Europe. Following the overthrow of King Louis Philippe I, Louis Philippe in February 1848, the Second Republic was ruled by a provisional government. In the months that followed, this government steered a course that became more conservative, which led to the start on June 1848Albert Guèrard, ''France, A Modern History'', p. 301. of the June Days uprising, a bloody but unsuccessful rebellion by the Paris workers. In November 1848 a new French Constitution of 1848, constitution was implemented, and the next month Napoleon III, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (Napoléon III) was 1848 French presidential election, elected president of the Second Republic. The Februar ...
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Monarchy
A monarchy is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department ... in which a person, the monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 "he head of state He or HE may refer to: Language * He (pronoun) In Mod ..., is head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional cha ... for life or until abdication Abdication is the act of formally relinquishing monarchical authority. Abdications have played various roles i ...
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Liberalism
Liberalism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of reso ... and moral philosophy Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of min ... based on liberty, consent of the governed and equality before the law."political rationalism, hostility to autocracy, cultural distaste for conservatism and for tradition in general, tolerance, and [...] individualism". John Dunn. ''Western Political Theory in the Face of the Future'' (1993). Cambridge University Press. . Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but they generally ...
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