17th Century In Africa
17 (seventeen) is the natural number following 16 (number), 16 and preceding 18 (number), 18. It is a prime number. Seventeen is the sum of the first four prime numbers. In mathematics Seventeen is the seventh prime number. The next prime is 19 (number), nineteen, with which it forms a twin prime. Seventeen is a permutable prime and a supersingular prime (moonshine theory), supersingular prime. Seventeen is the third Fermat prime, as it is of the form 2 + 1, specifically with ''n'' = 2. Since 17 is a Fermat prime, regular heptadecagons can be constructible polygon, constructed with a compass and unmarked ruler. This was proven by Carl Friedrich Gauss and ultimately led him to choose mathematics over philology for his studies. There are exactly 17 twodimensional space (plane symmetry) group (mathematics), groups. These are sometimes called wallpaper groups, as they represent the seventeen possible symmetry types that can be used for wallpaper. Like 41 (number), 41, the numb ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] 

Prime Number
A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that is not a Product (mathematics), product of two smaller natural numbers. A natural number greater than 1 that is not prime is called a composite number. For example, 5 is prime because the only ways of writing it as a product, or , involve 5 itself. However, 4 is composite because it is a product () in which both numbers are smaller than 4. Primes are central in number theory because of the fundamental theorem of arithmetic: every natural number greater than 1 is either a prime itself or can be factorization, factorized as a product of primes that is unique up to their order. The property of being prime is called primality. A simple but slow method of checking the primality of a given number n, called trial division, tests whether n is a multiple of any integer between 2 and \sqrt. Faster algorithms include the Miller–Rabin primality test, which is fast but has a small chance of error, and the AKS primality t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] 

Polynomial
In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and their changes (cal ..., a polynomial is an expression consisting of indeterminates (also called variables) and coefficient In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). It ...s, that involves only the operations of addition Addition (usually signified by the plus symbol The plus and minus signs, and , are mathematical symbol A mathematical symbol is a figure or a combination of figures that is used to represent a mathematical object A mathematical object is an ..., subtraction Subtraction is an arithmetic operation that repre ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] 

Atomic Number
The atomic number or proton number (symbol ''Z'') of a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical elements cannot be broken down into simp ... is the number of proton A proton is a subatomic particle, symbol or , with a positive electric charge of +1''e'' elementary charge and a mass slightly less than that of a neutron. Protons and neutrons, each with masses of approximately one atomic mass unit, are collecti ...s found in the nucleus ''Nucleus'' (plural nuclei) is a Latin word for the seed inside a fruit. It most often refers to: *Atomic nucleus, the very dense central region of an atom *Cell nucleus, a central organelle of a eukaryotic cell, containing most of the cell's DNA ... of every atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistr ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] 

Googolplex
A googolplex is the number 10, or equivalently, 10. Written out in ordinary decimal notation The decimal numeral system A numeral system (or system of numeration) is a writing system A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is t ..., it is 1 followed by 10100 zeroes; that is, a 1 followed by a googol A googol is the large number Numbers that are significantly larger than those typically used in everyday life, for instance in simple counting or in monetary transactions, appear frequently in fields such as mathematics Mathematics (fro ... zeroes. History In 1920, Edward Kasner Edward Kasner (April 2, 1878 – January 7, 1955) was a prominent United States, American mathematician who was appointed Tutor on Mathematics in the Columbia University Mathematics Department. Kasner was the first Jew appointed to a faculty ...'s nineyearold nephew, Milto ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] 

Googol
A googol is the large number 10100. In decimal notation, it is written as the numerical digit, digit 1 followed by one hundred 0 (number), zeroes: 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000. Etymology The term was coined in 1920 by 9yearold Milton Sirotta (1911–1981), nephew of U.S. mathematician Edward Kasner. Kasner popularized the concept in his 1940 book ''Mathematics and the Imagination''. Other Names of large numbers, names for this quantity include ''ten duotrigintillion'' on the Long and short scales, short scale, ''ten thousand sexdecillion'' on the Long and short scales, long scale, or ''ten sexdecilliard'' on the Names of large numbers#Extensions of the standard dictionary numbers, Peletier long scale. Size A googol has no special significance in mathematics. However, it is useful when comparing with other very large quantities such as the number of subatomic particles ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] 

65 (number)
65 (sixtyfive) is the natural number following 64 (number), 64 and preceding 66 (number), 66. In mathematics Sixtyfive is the 23rd semiprime and the 3rd of the form (5.q). It is an octagonal number. It is also a Cullen number. Given 65, the Mertens function returns 0 (number), 0. This number is the magic constant of 5 by 5 normal magic square: \begin 17 & 24 & 1 & 8 & 15 \\ 23 & 5 & 7 & 14 & 16 \\ 4 & 6 & 13 & 20 & 22 \\ 10 & 12 & 19 & 21 & 3 \\ 11 & 18 & 25 & 2 & 9 \end. This number is also the magic constant of Eight queens puzzle, nQueens Problem for n = 5. 65 is the smallest integer that can be expressed as a sum of two distinct positive squares in two ways, 65 = 82 + 12 = 72 + 42. It appears in the Padovan sequence, preceded by the terms 28, 37, 49 (it is the sum of the first two of these). There are only 65 known Euler's idoneal numbers. 65 = 15 + 24 + 33 + 42 + 51. 65 is the length of the hypotenuse of 4 different Pythagorean triple, Pythagorean triangles ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] 

Mersenne Prime
A Mersenne prime is a prime number A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that is not a Product (mathematics), product of two smaller natural numbers. A natural number greater than 1 that is not prime is called a composite number. For example, 5 is prime ... that is one less than a power of two Visualization of powers of two from 1 to 1024 (20 to 210) A power of two is a number of the form where is an integer An integer (from the Latin wikt:integer#Latin, ''integer'' meaning "whole") is colloquially defined as a number that can b .... That is, it is a prime number of the form for some integer An integer (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the IndoEuropean languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of t ... . They are named after Marin Mersenne Marin Mersenne (also known as Marinus Mersennus or ''le Pèr ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] 

Separation Of Variables
In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and their changes (cal ..., separation of variables (also known as the Fourier method) is any of several methods for solving ordinary Ordinary or The Ordinary often refer to: Music * Ordinary (EP), ''Ordinary'' (EP) (2015), by South Korean group Beast * Ordinary (Every Little Thing album), ''Ordinary'' (Every Little Thing album) (2011) * Ordinary (Two Door Cinema Club song), "O ... and partial differential equation In mathematics, a partial differential equation (PDE) is an equation which imposes relations between the various partial derivatives of a Multivariable calculus, multivariable function. The function is often thought of as an "unknown" to be sol ...s, in which algebra allows one to rewrite an equation so that each of two variab ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] 

Laplace Equation
In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and their changes (cal ... and physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. "Physical scie ..., Laplace's equation is a secondorder partial differential equation In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). I ... named after PierreSimon Laplace PierreSimon, marquis de Laplace (; ; 23 March 1749 – 5 March 1827) was a French scholar A ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] 

Coordinate Systems
In geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ' "earth", ' "measurement") is, with , one of the oldest branches of . It is concerned with properties of space that are related with distance, shape, size, and relative position of figures. A mat ..., a coordinate system is a system that uses one or more number A number is a mathematical object A mathematical object is an abstract concept arising in mathematics. In the usual language of mathematics, an ''object'' is anything that has been (or could be) formally defined, and with which one may do deduct ...s, or coordinates, to uniquely determine the position of the points Point or points may refer to: Places * Point, Lewis, a peninsula in the Outer Hebrides, Scotland * Point, Texas, a city in Rains County, Texas, United States * Point, the NE tip and a ferry terminal of Lismore, Scotland, Lismore, Inner Hebrides, ... or other geometric elements on a manifold The real projective plane is a twodimensiona ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] 

Sudoku
Sudoku (; ja, 数独, sūdoku, digitsingle; originally called Number Place) is a logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek: grc, wikt:λογική, λογική, label=none, lit ...based, combinatorial Combinatorics is an area of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematic ... numberplacement puzzle A puzzle is a game, Problem solving, problem, or toy that tests a person's ingenuity or knowledge. In a puzzle, the solver is expected to put pieces together in a logical way, in order to arrive at the correct or fun solution of the puzzle. There .... In classic sudoku, the objective is to fill a 9 × 9 grid with digits so that each colum ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] 

Pythagoreans
Pythagoreanism originated in the 6th century BC, based on the teachings and beliefs held by Pythagoras Pythagoras of Samos, or simply ; in Ionian Greek () was an ancient Ionians, Ionian Ancient Greek philosophy, Greek philosopher and the eponymous founder of Pythagoreanism. His political and religious teachings were well known in Magna Graec ... and his followers, the Pythagoreans. Pythagoras established the first Pythagorean community in Crotone Crotone (, ; nap, label= Crotonese, Cutrone or ) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a of , roughly equivalent to a or . Importance and function The provides essential public services: of births and deaths, , and maintena ..., Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest .... Early Pythagorean co ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] 